Energy, entropy and temperature are key concepts both in classical and modern physics. It is, however, challenging to understand their meaning in phenomena involvingmatter under extreme conditions, such as high velocity, acceleration or complexity. The historical path of the evolution of these concepts roots in the seventeenth century mechanics and nineteenth century thermodynamics. Quests for a mathematical and microscopical foundation for these key concepts brought life to studies of ergodicity, chaos, kinetic theory and physical chemistry in the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In fact, emotionally loaded disputes between Poincaré’s concept of recurrence in phase space and Boltzmann’s model about the emergence of irreversibility by following reversiblemicrorulesmade it difficult to generally accept either view. Physical measurement and interpretation, theoretical construction of the quantity called absolute temperature are the topics in Chaps. 2 and 3.
KeywordsBlack Hole Classical Concept Contemporary Physic Accelerator Experiment Mathematical Analogy
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