Advertisement

Utilization Patterns of Caregiver Education and Support Programs

  • Deborah J. Monahan
Chapter
Part of the Caregiving: Research, Practice, Policy book series (CARE)

Abstract

This chapter analyzes the utilization patterns of caregiver education and support programs with an emphasis on psychoeducational support groups and respite. An overview of the issues, definitions, conceptual frameworks, and evidence from research and current practice is provided. The structure of utilization patterns reviewed in this chapter includes (1) who attends education and support group programs, (2) what specific interventions are used, (3) implications of attendance at these programs, and (4) their beneficial outcomes. Studies reviewed in this chapter include those that focus on utilization patterns as well as outcome studies that examine utilization. Some of the later include studies of service use such as health-care utilization and cost outcomes. This chapter also discusses the status of educational and supportive interventions for caregivers in the future along with their attendant research, practice, policy, and advocacy implications. Families increasingly are caring for frail older adults with the assistance of community-based education and supportive programs. As more baby boomers enter retirement and become chronically ill over the next several decades, the incidence and prevalence of frail older persons needing supportive educational services will increase (National Alliance for Caregiving-NAC, AARP, & Metlife, 2009; NAC & AARP, 2005).

Keywords

Support Group Service Utilization Family Caregiver Utilization Pattern Formal Service 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Administration on Aging (2004). Compassion in Action. (www.aoa.gov).
  2. Andersen, R. M. (1995). Revisiting the behavioral model and access to medical care: Does it matter? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36(1), 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen, R. M., & Newman, J. (1973). Societal and individual determinants of medical care utilization in the United States. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 51, 95–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bradley, E. H., McGraw, S. A., Curry, L., Buckser, A., King, K. L., Kasl, S. V., et al. (2002). Expanding the Andersen model: The role of psychosocial factors in long-term care use. Health Services Research, 37(5), 1221–1242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brodaty, H., Green, A., & Koschera, A. (2003). Meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for caregivers of people with dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(5), 657–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brodaty, H., McGilchrist, C., Harris, L., & Peters, K. E. (1993). Time until institutionalization and death in patients with dementia. Archives of Neurology, 50, 643–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brodaty, H., & Peters, K. (1991). Cost effectiveness of a training program for dementia caregivers. International Psychogeriatrics, 3, 11–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brodaty, H., Thomson, C., Thompson, C., & Fine, M. (2005). Why caregivers of people with dementia and memory loss don’t use services. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 537–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brody, E. (1985). Parent care as a normative family stress. The Gerontologist, 25, 19–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Burks, V. K., Lund, D. A., & Hill, R. D. (1991). Factors associated with attendance at caregiver support group meetings. Activities, Adaptation and Aging, 15(3), 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caserta, M. S., Lund, D. A., Wright, S. D., & Redburn, D. E. (1987). Caregivers to dementia patients: The utilization of community services. The Gerontologist, 27(2), 209–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cooke, D. D., McNally, L., Mulligan, K. T., Harrison, J. G., & Newman, S. P. (2001). Psychosocial interventions for caregivers of people with dementia: A systematic review. Aging and Mental Health, 5(2), 120–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cox, C. (1997). Findings from a statewide program of respite care: A comparison of users, stoppers, and nonusers. The Gerontologist, 37, 511–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cox, C. (1999). Race and caregiving: Patterns of service use by African-American and white caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 32(2), 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dilworth-Anderson, P., Williams, I. C., & Gibson, B. E. (2002). Issues of race, ethnicity, and culture in caregiving research: A 20-year review (1980-2000). The Gerontologist, 42(2), 237–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Doty, P. (1995). Family caregiving and access to publicly funded home care: Implicit and explicit influences on decision making. In R. A. Kane & J. D. Penrod (Eds.), Family caregiving in an aging society: Policy perspectives (pp. 92–122). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Ervin, S. (2000). Fourteen forecasts for an aging society. Futurist, 34(1), 24–28.Google Scholar
  18. Farkas, M., Jette, A. M., Tennstedt, S., Haley, S. M., & Quinn, V. (2003). Knowledge dissemination and utilization in gerontology: An organizing framework. The Gerontologist, 43(1), 47–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gallagher-Thompson, D., & Coon, D. W. (2007). Evidence-based psychological treatments for distress in family caregivers of older adults. Psychology and Aging, 22(1), 37–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gaugler, J. E., Kane, R. L., Kane, R. A., & Newcomer, R. (2005). Early community-based service utilization and its effects on institutionalization in dementia caregiving. The Gerontologist, 45(2), 177–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gonyea, J., & Silverstein, N. M. (1991). The role of Alzheimer’s disease support groups in families’ utilization of community services. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 16(3/4), 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Greene, V. L., & Coleman, P. (1995). Direct services for caregivers. In R. A. Kane & J. D. Penrod (Eds.), Family caregiving in an aging society: Policy perspectives (pp. 46–63). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  23. Greene, V. L., & Monahan, D. J. (1987). The effect of a professionally guided caregiver support and education program on institutionalization of care receivers. The Gerontologist, 27(6), 716–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hong, S. I. (2010). Understanding patterns of service utilization among informal caregivers of community older adults. The Gerontologist, 50(1), 87–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kane, R. A., & Penrod, J. D. (1995). Family caregiving in an aging society: Policy perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  26. King, V. (2006). Elderly seek to grow old together, form new support groups. Seattle Times, A1, A11.Google Scholar
  27. Knight, B. G., Lutzky, S. M., & Macofsky-Urban, F. (1993). A meta-analytic review of interventions for caregiver distress: Recommendations for future research. The Gerontologist, 3(2), 240–248.Google Scholar
  28. Kosloski, K., Schaefer, J. P., Allwardt, D., Montgomery, R., & Karner, T. (2002). Role of cultural factors on clients’ attitudes toward caregiving, perceptions of service delivery, and service utilization. Home Health Care Services Quarterly, 21(3–4), 65–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lampley-Dallas, V. T. (2002). Research issues for minority dementia patients and their caregivers: What are the gaps in our knowledge base? Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 16(2), 46–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Logan, J. R., & Spitze, G. (1994). Informal support and the use of formal services by older Americans. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 49, 525–534.Google Scholar
  31. Maloney, P. (1998). Future directions for public senior services: Meeting divergent needs. Generations, 22(1), 29–33.Google Scholar
  32. McCallion, P., & Toseland, R. W. (1995). Supportive group interventions with caregivers of frail older adults. Social Work with Groups, 18(1), 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mittelman, M. S., Ferris, S. H., Shulman, E., Steinberg, G., & Levin, B. (1996). A family intervention to delay nursing home placement of patients with Alzheimer’s disease: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 276, 1725–1731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Monahan, D. J. (1994). Caregiver support groups: Efficacy issues for educators. Educational Gerontologist, 20, 699–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Monahan, D. J., Greene, V. L., & Coleman, P. (1992). Caregiver support groups: Factors affecting use of services. Social Work, 37(3), 254–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Montoro-Rodriguez, J., Kosloski, K., & Montgomery, R. (2003). Evaluating a practice oriented service model to increase the use of respite services among minorities and rural caregivers. The Gerontologist, 43(6), 916–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Morano, C. L., & Bravo, M. (2002). A psychoeducational model for Hispanic Alzheimer’s disease caregivers. The Gerontologist, 42(1), 122–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. National Alliance for Caregiving (2005). Caregiving in the United States. In collaboration with AARP (Bethesda, MD).Google Scholar
  39. National Alliance for Caregiving, AARP, and MetLife (2009). Caregiving in the United States. (Bethesda, MD).Google Scholar
  40. Peak, T., Toseland, R., & Banks, S. (1995). Impact of a spouse-caregiver support group on care recipient health care costs. Journal of Aging and Health, 7(3), 427–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pillemer, K., Suitor, J. J., & Wethington, E. (2003). Integrating theory, basic research, and intervention: Two case studies from caregiving research. The Gerontologist, 43(1), 19–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Radina, M. E., & Barber, C. E. (2004). Utilization of formal support services among Hispanic Americans caring for aging parents. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 43(2/3), 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Scharlach, A. E., Giunta, N., Chow, J. C. C., Lehning, A., & Del Santo, T. (2008). Racial and ethnic variations in caregiver service use. Journal of Aging and Health, 20(3), 326–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schulz, R., O’Brien, A., Czaja, S., Ory, M., Norris, R., Martire, L. M., et al. (2002). Dementia caregiver intervention research: In search of clinical significance. The Gerontologist, 42(5), 589–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Smith, T. L., & Toseland, R. W. (2006). The effectiveness of a telephone support program for caregivers of frail older adults. The Gerontologist, 46(5), 620–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Sorensen, S., Pinquart, M., & Duberstein, P. (2002). How effective are interventions with caregivers? An updated meta-analysis. The Gerontologist, 42(3), 356–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Spillman, B. C., & Black, K. J. (2005). Staying the course: Trends in family caregiving. Washington, D.C.: AARP Public Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  48. Toseland, R. W. (1990). Long-term effectiveness of peer-led and professionally-led support groups for caregivers. Social Service Review, 64(2), 308–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Toseland, R., Blanchard, C., & McCallion, P. (1995). A problem solving intervention for caregivers of cancer patients. Social Science and Medicine, 40(4), 517–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Toseland, R., Labrecque, M., Goebel, S., & Whitney, M. (1992). An evaluation of a group ­program for spouses of frail elderly veterans. The Gerontologist, 32(3), 382–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Toseland, R. W., McCallion, P., Gerber, T., & Banks, S. (2002). Predictors of health and human services use by persons with dementia and their family caregivers. Social Science and Medicine, 55, 1255–1266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Toseland, R. W., McCallion, P., Gerber, T., Dawson, C., Gieryic, S., & Guilamo-Ramos, V. (1999). Use of health and human services by community-residing people with dementia. Social Work, 44(6), 535–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Toseland, R., McCallion, P., Smith, T., Huck, S., Burgeois, P., & Garstka, T. (2001). Health education groups for caregivers in an HMO. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(4), 551–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Toseland, R. W., & Rossiter, C. M. (1989). Group interventions to support family caregivers: A review and analysis. The Gerontologist, 29(4), 438–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Toseland, R., Rossiter, C., Peak, T., & Smith, G. (1990). The comparative effectiveness of individual and group interventions to support family caregivers. Social Work, 35, 209–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Toseland, R., & Smith, T. (2006). The impact of a caregiver health education program on health care costs. Research on Social Work Practice, 16(1), 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Weiner, J. (2003). The role of informal support in long term care. In Key issues in long term care. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  58. Wolinsky, F. D. (1994). Health services utilization among older adults: Conceptual, measurement, and modeling issues in secondary analysis. The Gerontologist, 34(4), 470–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Wolinsky, F. D., & Johnson, R. J. (1991). The use of health services by older adults. Journal of Gerontology, 46, 345–357.Google Scholar
  60. Wray, L., Shulan, M., Toseland, R., Freeman, K., Vásquez, B., & Gao, J. (2010). The Effect of Telephone Support Groups on Costs of Care for Veterans with Dementia. The Gerontologist, 50(5), 623–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social WorkSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA

Personalised recommendations