Electrocardiography – Approach and Interpretation

  • Ra-id Abdulla
  • Douglas M. Luxenberg


The initial step in reading any ECG is to know patient’s age since all parameters are age specific. Make sure the standardization and speed of paper are normal (10 mm/mV and 25 mm/s). QRS axis varies by age; newborn children have a rightward axis (60–180°), while adolescents and adults have a QRS axis of −15 to 110°. RAE manifests as tall P-wave, while LAE manifest as wide, notched P-wave. LVH manifests as deep S-wave in V1and a tall R-wave in V6. RVH manifests in many forms including: Tall R in V1 and deep S in V6 rsR′ in V1 and V2 qR in V1 and V2 Pure R-wave in V1 and V2


Ventricular Hypertrophy Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Septum Paper Speed Coronary Artery Anomaly 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Congenital and Structural Heart DiseasesRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations