An Introduction to Repair Techniques

  • Masashi Horiguchi
  • Kiyoo Itoh
Part of the Integrated Circuits and Systems book series (ICIR)

With larger capacity, smaller feature size, and lower voltage operations of memory-rich CMOS LSIs (Fig. 1.1), various kinds of “errors (faults)” have been prominent and the repair techniques for them have become more important. The “errors” are categorized as hard/soft errors, timing/voltage margin errors, and speed-relevant errors. Hard/soft errors and timing/voltage margin errors, which occur in a chip, are prominent in a memory array because the array comprises memory cells having the smallest size and largest circuit count in the chip. In particular, coping with the margin errors is becoming increasingly important, and thus an emerging issue for low-voltage nanoscale LSIs, since the errors rapidly increase with device and voltage scaling. Increase in operating voltage is one of the best ways to tackle the issue. However, this approach is not acceptable due to intolerably increased power dissipation. Speed-relevant errors, which are prominent at a lower voltage operation, include speed-degradation errors of the chip itself and intolerably wide chip-to-chip speed-variation errors caused by the ever-larger interdie design-parameter variation. For the LSI industry in order to flourish and proliferate, solutions based on in-depth investigation of the errors are crucial.


Code Word Margin Error Soft Error Memory Array SRAM Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Renesas Electronics CorporationTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Central Research LaboratoryHitachi Ltd.TokyoJapan

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