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Mycorrhizal Inoculants: Progress in Inoculant Production Technology

  • Zaki A. SiddiquiEmail author
  • Ryota Kataoka
Chapter

Abstract

Of the seven types of mycorrhizae, the symbiotic association of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) and ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is the most abundant and widespread. Mycorrhizal inoculant technology, especially of AM and ECM, appears to be a promising avenue for sustainable agriculture and forestry because of their extensive and productive association with plants. Production of mycorrhizal inocula is a complex procedure that requires commercial enterprises to develop the necessary biotechnological skill and ability to respond to legal, ethical, educational, and commercial requirements. At present, commercial mycorrhizal inocula are produced in pots, nursery plots, containers with different substrates and plants, and aeroponic systems, and by nutrient film technique, or in vitro. Different formulated products are now marketed, which creates the need for the establishment of standards for widely accepted quality control. Generally, preparation and formulation of mycorrhizal inocula are carried out by applying polymer materials with well-established characteristics and which are useful for agriculture and forestry. The most commonly used methods involve entrapment of fungal materials in natural polysaccharide gels, which includes immobilization of mycorrhizal root pieces, vesicles, and spores, in some cases coentrapped with other plant-beneficial microorganisms. Efforts should be devoted toward registration procedures of mycorrhizal inoculants to stimulate the development of mycorrhizal products industry. Biotechnology research and development in such activities must be encouraged, particularly with regard to interactions of mycorrhizal fungi with other rhizosphere microbes, and selection of new plant varieties with enhanced mycorrhizal traits to provide maximum benefits to agriculture and forestry.

Keywords

Biotechnology Mycorrhiza Mass culture Commercial inoculum Formulation 

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

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