Advertisement

Emotion Regulation Training at Tiers 1, 2, and 3

  • Gayle L. Macklem
Chapter

Abstract

As we think about work with students in schools, we must focus on both prevention and intervention. Two aspects of emotion science that are strongly related to these goals are emotion understanding and emotion regulation (Southam-Gerow & Kendall, 2002). The goal is to use emotion research to enhance our work with children. In the case of prevention at Tier 1, the goal is to improve emotion literacy and to teach some life skills. In the case of Tier 2 and 3 counseling work, the goal would include more advanced training in emotion regulation with more explicit teaching of strategies. Emotion understanding includes: the ability to label, appraise, and understand other’s facial expressions; to understand our own internal emotions as well as those of others; to be able to label emotions and emotional experiences; and to understand cultural display rules. Emotion regulation has to do with ability to manage or change how we think of our emotional experiences and events. Emotion regulation involves a particular focus on regulating intensity and duration of negative emotions as needed and to use those skills when interacting with others, which may involve decreasing or masking the emotions we feel. Emotion regulation includes increasing positive emotions (Izard, 2002; Kats-Gold & Priel, 2009). Emotion regulation is int tely related to a sense of well-being, self-efficacy, and successful communication.

Keywords

Facial Expression Emotion Regulation Negative Emotion Positive Emotion Implementation Intention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ackerman, B. P., & Izard, C. E. (2004). Emotion cognition in children and adolescents: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 89(4), 271–275. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp. 2004.08.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahearn, E. P. (1997). The use of visual analog scales in mood disorders: A critical review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 31(5), 569–579. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3956(97)00029-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambady, N., & Gray, H. M. (2002). On being sad and mistaken: Mood effects on the accuracy of thin-slice judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(4), 947–961. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.83.4.947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amsterlaw, J., Lagattuta, K. H., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2009). Young children’s reasoning about the effect of emotional and physiological states on academic performance. Child Development, 80(1), 115–133. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01249.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aviezer, H., Hassin, R. R., Ryan, J., Grady, C., Susskind, J., Anderson, A., et al. (2008). Angry, disgusted, or afraid? Studies on the malleability of emotion perception. Psychological Science, 19(7), 724–732. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02148.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barlow, D. H., Allen, L. B., & Choate, M. L. (2004). Toward a unified treatment for emotional disorders. Behavior Therapy, 35(2), 205–230. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80036-4 DOI:dx.doi.org.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett, L. F., Gross, J., Christensen, T., & Benvenuto, M. (2001). Knowing what you’re feeling and knowing what to do about it: Mapping the relation between emotion differentiation and emotion regulation. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 713–724. doi: 10.1080/02699930143000239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beck, J. S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  9. Beesdo, K., Bittner, A., Pine, D. S., Stein, M. B., Höfler, M., Lieb, R., et al. (2007). Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary depression in the first three decades of life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(8), 903–912. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.11.022. Retrieved from http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/
  10. Berkman, E. T., & Lieberman, M. D. (2009). Using neuroscience to broaden emotion regulation: Theoretical and methodological considerations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(4), 475–493. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2009.00186.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berti, A. E., Garattoni, C., & Venturini, B. (2000). The understanding of sadness, guilt, and shame in 5-, 7- and 9-year old children. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 126(3), 292–318. doi: 10.1177/1359104508100137.Google Scholar
  12. Boone, R. T., & Cunningham, J. G. (1998). Children’s decoding of emotion in expressive body movement: The development of cue attunement. Developmental Psychology, 34(5), 1007–1016. Retrieved from http://facpub.stjohns.edu/∼booner/Publications/DP2B.pdf
  13. Bortoli, A., & Brown, M. (2002). The social attention of children with disabilities during social engagement opportunities. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu.au/02pap/bor02050.htm
  14. Burke, C. A. (2009). Mindfulness-based approaches with children and adolescents: Preliminary review of current research in an emergent field. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 133–144. doi: 10.1007/s10826-009-9282-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carver, C. S., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2009). Anger is an approach-related affect: Evidence and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135(2), 183–204. doi: 10.1037/a0013965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ciarrochi, J., & Blackledge, J. T. (2006). Mindfulness-based emotional intelligence training: A new approach to reducing human suffering and promoting effectiveness. In J. Ciarrochi, J. P. Forgas, & J. D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life (2nd ed., pp. 206–228). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cole, P. M., Dennis, T. A., Martin, S. E., & Hall, S. E. (2008). Emotion regulation and the early development of psychopathology. In M. Vandekerckhove, C. von Scheve, S. Ismer, S. Jung, & S. Kronast (Eds.), Regulating emotions: Culture, social necessity and biological inheritance (pp. 171–188). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  18. Cole, P. M., Dennis, T. A., Smith-Simon, K. E., & Cohen, L. H. (2009). Preschoolers’ emotion regulation strategy understanding: Relations with emotion socialization and child self-regulation. Social Development, 18(2), 324–352. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00503.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cole, P. M., Luby, J., & Sullivan, M. W. (2008). Emotions and the development of childhood depression: Bridging the gap. Child Development Perspectives, 2(3), 141–148. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2008.00056.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davidson, R. J., Fox, A., & Kalin, N. H. (2007). Neural bases of emotion regulation in nonhuman primates and humans. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 47–68). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  21. Dennis, T. A., & Chen, C. (2007a). Emotional face processing and attention performance in three domains: Neurophysiological mechanisms and moderating effects of trait anxiety. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 65(1), 10–19. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2007.02.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Doyle, B. G., & Bramwell, W. (2006). Promoting emergent literacy and social-emotional learning through dialogic reading. The Reading Teacher, 59(6), 554–564. doi: 10.1598/RT.59.6.5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dunn, B. D., Billotti, D., Murphy, V., & Dalgleish, T. (2009). The consequences of effortful emotion regulation when processing distressing material: A comparison of suppression and acceptance. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(9), 761–773. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.05.007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ehrenreich, J. T., Fairholme, C. P., Buzzella, B. A., Ellard, K. K., & Barlow, D. H. (2007). The role of emotion in psychological therapy. Clinical Psychology, 14(4), 422–428. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.2007.00102.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, regulation and moral development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 665–697. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eisenberg, N., Sadovsky, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2005). Associations of emotion-related regulation with language skills, emotion knowledge, and academic outcomes. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 109, 109–118. doi: 10.1002/cd.143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ekman, P. (2003). Emotions revealed: Recognizing faces and feelings to improve communication and emotional life (2nd ed.). New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.Google Scholar
  28. Feindler, E. L., & Ecton, R. B. (1986). Adolescent anger control: Cognitive behavioral techniques. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  29. Folkman, S. (2008). The case for positive emotions in the stress process. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 21(1), 3–14. doi: 10.1080/10615800701740457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Friedberg, R. D., & McClure, J. M. (2002). Clinical practice of cognitive behavioral therapy with children and adolescents: The nuts and bolts. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  31. Gao, X., & Maurer, D. (2009). Influence of intensity on children’s sensitivity to happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102(4), 503–521. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp. 2008.11.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Garland, E., Gaylord, S., & Park, J. (2009). The role of mindfulness in positive reappraisals. The Journal of Science and Healing, 5(1), 37–44. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2008.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gazelle, H., & Rudolph, K. D. (2004). Moving toward and away from the world: Social approach and avoidance trajectories in anxious solitary youth. Child Development, 75(3), 829–849. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00709.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gerdes, A. B., Alpers, G. W., & Pauli, P. (2008). When spiders appear suddenly: Spider-phobic patients are distracted by task-irrelevant spiders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(2), 174–187. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2007.10.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goldin, P. R., McRae, K., Ramel, W., & Gross, J. J. (2008). The neural bases of emotion regulation: Reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion. Biological Psychiatry, 63(6), 577–586. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.05.031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Goldsmith, H. H., & Davidson, R. J. (2004). Disambiguating the components of emotion regulation. Child Development, 75, 361–365. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00678.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69–119. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2601(06)38002-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gray, J. R. (1999). A bias toward short-term thinking in threat-related negative emotional states. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(1), 65–75. doi: 10.1177/0146167299025001006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Greenberg, L. S. (2002). Emotion-focused therapy: Coaching clients to work thought their feelings. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grinspan, D., Hemphill, A., & Nowicki, S. (2003). Improving the ability of elementary school-age children to identify emotion in facial expression. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 164(1), 88–100. doi: 10.1080/00221320309597505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gullone, E., Hughes, E. K., King, N. J., & Tonge, B. (2009). The normative development of emotion regulation strategy use in children and adolescents: A 2-year follow-up study (advance online publication). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02183.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Haga, S. M., Kraft, P., & Corby, E. (2009). Emotion regulation: Antecedents and well-being outcomes of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression in cross-cultural samples. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(3), 271–291. doi: 10.1007/s10902-007-9080-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hauser, D., Carter, M., & Meier, B. (2009). Mellow Monday and furious Friday: The approach-related link between anger and time representation. Cognition and Emotion, 23(6), 1166–1180. doi: 10.1080/02699930802358424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behavior Research and Therapy, 44, 1–25. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Herba, C., & Phillips, M. (2004). Annotation: Development of facial expression recognition from childhood to adolescence: Behavioral and neurological perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 45(7), 1185–1198. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00316.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hoeksma, J. B., Oosterlaan, J., & Schipper, E. M. (2004). Emotion regulation and the dynamics of feelings: A conceptual and methodological framework. Child Development, 75(2), 354–360. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00677.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Izard, C. E. (2002). Translating emotion theory and research into preventive interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 128(5), 796–824. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.128.5.796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Izard, C. E., Ackerman, B. P., Schoff, K. M., & Fine, S. E. (2002). Self-organization of discrete emotion patterns, and emotion-cognition relations. In M. D. Lewis & I. Granic (Eds.), Emotion, development and self-organization: Dynamic systems approaches to emotional development (pp. 15–36). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Jha, A. P., Krompinger, K., & Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(2), 109–119. doi: 10.3758/CABN.7.2.109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1301–1333. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Joseph, G. E., & Strain, P. S. (2003). Enhancing emotional vocabulary in young children. Young Exceptional Children, 6(4), 18–26. doi: 10.1177/109625060300600403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kats-Gold, I., & Priel, B. (2009). Emotion understanding and social skills among boys at risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 46(7), 658–678. doi: 10.1002/pits.20406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kellner, M. H., & Tutin, J. (1995). A school-based anger management program for developmentally and emotionally disabled high school students. Adolescence, 30(3), 215–230. doi: 10.1080/07317100802275520.Google Scholar
  55. Kendall, P. C., Aschenbrand, S. G., & Hudson, J. L. (2003). Child-focused treatment of anxiety. In A. E. Kazdin & J. R. Weisz (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (pp. 81–100). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  56. Kendall, P. C., & Treadwell, K. R. (2007). The role of self-statements as a mediator in treatment for youth with anxiety disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(3), 380–389. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.75.3.380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kerr, M. A., & Schneider, B. H. (2008). Anger expression in children and adolescents: A review of the empirical literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(4), 559–577. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.08.001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Koole, S. (2009). The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Cognition and Emotion, 23(1), 4–41. doi: 10.1080/02699930802619031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kovacs, M., Sherrill, J., George, C. J., Pollock, M., Tumuluru, R. V., & Ho, V. (2006). Contextual emotion-regulation therapy for childhood depression: Description and pilot testing of a new intervention. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(8), 892–903. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000222878.74162.5a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Larsen, J. T., To, Y. M., & Fireman, G. (2007). Children’s understanding and experience of mixed emotions. Psychological Science, 18(2), 186–191. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01870.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Levine, L. J., Burgess, S. L., & Laney, C. (2008). Effects of discrete emotions on young children’s suggestibility. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 681–694. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.44.3.681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lieberman, M. D., Eisenberger, N. I., Crockett, M. J., Tom, S. M., Pfeifer, J. H., & Way, B. M. (2007). Putting feelings into words: Affect labeling disrupts amygdala activity to affective stimuli. Psychological Science, 18(5), 421–428. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01916.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lindquist, K., Barrett, L. F., Bliss-Moreau, E., & Russell, J. (2006). Language and the perception of emotion. Emotion, 6, 125–138. doi: 10.1177/1088868307309605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Linehan, M. M. (1993a). Cognitive behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  65. Linehan, M. M. (2000). Opposite action: Changing emotions you want to change. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  66. Liverant, G. I., Brown, T. A., Barlow, D. H., & Roemer, L. (2008). Emotion regulation in unipolar depression: The effects of acceptance and suppression of subjective emotional experience on the intensity and duration of sadness and negative affect. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(11), 1201–1209. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.08.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Liwag, M. D., & Stein, N. L. (1995). Children’s memory for emotional events: The importance of emotion-related retrieval cues. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 60, 2–31. doi: 10.1006/jecp. 1995.1029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., Cote, S., & Beers, M. (2005). Emotion regulation abilities and the quality of social interaction. Emotion, 5(1), 113–118. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.5.1.113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Luke, B. (2009). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and wellbeing. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.Google Scholar
  70. Manzoni, G. M., Pagnini, F., Castelnuovo, G., & Molinari, E. (2008). Relaxation training for anxiety: A ten-years systemic review with meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 41. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marks, B. A., & Woods, D. W. (2005). A comparison of thought suppression to an acceptance-based technique in the management of personal intrusive thoughts: A controlled evaluation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(4), 433–445. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mauss, I. B., Cook, C. L., Cheng, J. Y., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Individual differences in cognitive reappraisal: Experiential and physiological responses to an anger provocation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 66(2), 116–124. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2007.03.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mauss, I. B., Evers, C., Wilhelm, F. H., & Gross, J. J. (2006). How to bite your tongue without blowing your top: Implicit evaluation of emotion regulation predicts affective responding to anger provocation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(5), 389–602. doi: 10.1177/0146167205283841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McRae, K., Hughes, B., Chopra, S., Gabrieli, J. D., Gross, J. J., & Ochsner, K. N. (2010). The neural bases of distraction and reappraisal. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(2), 248–261. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2009.21243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Miller, A. L., Rathus, J. H., & Linehan, M. M. (2007). Dialectical behavior therapy with suicidal adolescents. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  76. Mills, H., Reiss, N., & Dombeck, M. (Updated, 2008). Cognitive therapy techniques for stress reduction. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=15667&cn=117
  77. Moore, S. A., Zoeliner, L. A., & Mollenholt, M. (2008). Are expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal associated with stress-related symptoms? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(9), 993–1000. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.05.001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mor, N., & Winquist, J. (2002). Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 638–662. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.128.4.638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Moses, E. B., & Barlow, D. H. (2006). A new unified treatment approach for emotional disorders based on emotion science. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(3), 146–150. doi: 10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00425.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mouilso, E., Glenberg, A. M., Havas, D. A., & Lindeman, L. M. (2007). Differences in action tendencies distinguish anger and sadness after comprehension of emotional sentences. In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society meeting (pp. 1325–1330). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.Google Scholar
  81. Muris, P., Hoeve, I., Meesters, C., & Mayer, B. (2004). Children’s perception and interpretation of anxiety-related physical symptoms. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 35(3), 233–244. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep. 2004.03.008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Niedenthal, P. M., Krauth-Gruber, S., & Ric, F. (2006). Psychology of emotion: Interpersonal, experiential, and cognitive approaches. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  83. Oberman, L., Winkielman, P., & Ramachandran, V. S. (2007). Face to face: Blocking facial mimicry can selectively impair recognition of emotional expressions. Social Neuroscience, 2, 167–178. doi: 10.1080/17470910701391943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ochsner, K. N. (2006). Characterizing the function architecture of affect regulation: Emerging answers and outstanding questions. In J. T. Cacioppo, P. S. Visser, & C. L. Pickett (Eds.), Social neuroscience: People thinking about thinking people (pp. 245–268). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  85. Ochsner, K. N., Bunge, S. A., Gross, J. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2002). Rethinking feelings: An fMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(8), 1215–1229. doi: 10.1162/0898929042947829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ochsner, K. N., & Gross, J. J. (2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9(5), 242–249. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2005.03.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Parker, J. G., Low, C. M., Walker, A. R., & Gamm, B. K. (2005). Friendship jealousy in young adolescents: Individual differences and links to sex, self-esteem, aggression, and social adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 41(1), 235–250. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.41.1.235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Penno, J. F., Wilkinson, I. A. G., & Moore, D. W. (2002). Vocabulary acquisition from teacher explanation and repeated listening to stories: Do they overcome the Matthew effect? Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 23–33. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.94.1.23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Philippot, P., Chapelle, G., & Blairy, S. (2002). Respiratory feedback in the generation of emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 16(5), 605–627. doi: 10.1080/02699930143000392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Powers, M. B., Vörding, M. B., & Emmelkamp, P. M. (2009). Acceptance and commitment therapy: A meta-analytic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78, 73–80. doi: 10.1159/000190790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rice, J., Levine, L. J., & Pizarro, D. A. (2007). “Just stop thinking about it”: Effects of emotional disengagement on children’s memory for educational material. Emotion, 7(4), 812–823. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.7.4.812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Richards, J. M. (2002). Emotion, emotion regulation and hopeful thinking. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 308–311. Retrieved from http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/journal.asp?issn=1047-840X&linktype=44
  93. Richards, J. M., & Gross, J. J. (2000). Emotion regulation and memory: The cognitive costs of keeping one’s cool. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(3), 410–424. doi: I0.I037//0022-3514.79.3.410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rivers, S. E., Brackett, M. A., Katulak, N. A., & Salovey, P. (2007). Regulating anger and sadness: An exploration of discrete emotions in emotion regulation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 393–427. doi: 10.1007/s10902-006-9017-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Saarikallio, S. (2009). Emotional self-regulation through music in 3-8-year old children. Proceedings of the 7th Triennial Conference of European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM 2009), Jyväskylä, Finland.Google Scholar
  96. Salovey, P. (2006). Applied emotional intelligence: Regulating emotions to become healthy, wealthy and wise. In J. Ciarrochi, J. P. Forgas, & J. D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life (2nd ed., pp. 229–248). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  97. Salters-Pedneault, K., Tull, M. T., & Roemer, L. (2004). The role of avoidance of emotional material in the anxiety disorders. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 11(2), 95–114. doi: 10.1016/j.appsy.2004.09.001. SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols. Tip 34: Chapter 4 – Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=hssamhsatip&part=A59652
  98. Sams, K., Collins, S., & Reynolds, S. (2006). Cognitive therapy abilities in people with learning disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), 25–33. doi: wiley.com/10.1111/j.1468-3148.2006.00303.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Selby, E. A., Anestis, M. D., & Joiner, T. E. (2008). Understanding the relationship between emotional and behavioral dysregulation: Emotional cascades. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(5), 593–611. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.02.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Semple, R. J., Reid, E. F., & Miller, L. (2005). Treating anxiety with mindfulness: An open trial of mindfulness training for anxious training. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 19(4), 379–392. Retrieved from http://www.springerpub.com/product/08898391 Google Scholar
  101. Sharoff, K. (2002). Cognitive coping therapy. New York: Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
  102. Sheppes, G., & Meiran, N. (2008). Divergent cognitive costs for online forms of reappraisal and distraction. Emotion, 8(6), 870–874. doi: 10.1037/a0013711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2003). Adolescents’ emotion regulation in daily life: Links to depressive symptoms and problem behavior. Child Development, 74(6), 1869–1880. doi: 10.1046/j.1467-8624.2003.00643.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sinha, S. P., & Gupta, S. (2006). State self esteem and causal attribution in reattribution training among self worth protective students. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 32(3), 145–151. doi: 10.1177/0143034309106946.Google Scholar
  105. Southam-Gerow, M. A., & Kendall, P. C. (2002). Emotion regulation and understanding: Implications for child psychopathology and therapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 189–222. doi: 10.1016/S0272-7358(01)00087-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Spett, M. (2004). Expressing negative emotions: Healthy catharsis or sign of pathology? Retrieved February 1, 2009, from http://www.nj-act.org/article3.html
  107. Stewart, J. L., Silton, R. L., Sass, S. M., Fisher, J. E., Edgar, J. C., Heller, W., et al. (2010). Attentional bias to negative emotion as a function of approach and withdrawal anger styles: An ERP investigation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 76(1), 9–18. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2010.01.008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Suveg, C., & Zeman, J. (2004). Emotion regulation in children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 750–759. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3304_10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tabibnia, G., Lieberman, M. D., & Craske, M. G. (2008). The lasting effect of words on feelings: Words may facilitate exposure effects to threatening images. Emotion, 8(3), 307–317. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.8.3.307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tracy, J. L., Robins, R. W., & Lagattuta, K. H. (2005). Can children recognize pride? Emotions, 5(3), 25–257. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.5.3. 251.Google Scholar
  111. Travris, C. (1982). Anger: The misunderstood emotion. New York: Simon and Shuster.Google Scholar
  112. Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2007). Regulation of positive emotions: Emotion regulation strategies that promote resilience. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8(3), 311–333. doi: 10.1007/s10902-006-9015-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wang, L., LaBar, K. S., & McCarthy, G. (2006). Mood alters amygdala activation to sad distractors during an attentional task. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 1139–1146. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.01.021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Watson, D. (2009). Locating anger in the hierarchical structure of affect: Comment on Carver and Harmon-Jones. Psychological Bulletin, 135(2), 205–208. doi: 10.1037/a0014413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Weisz, J. R. (2004). Psychotherapy for children and adolescents: Evidence-based treatments and case examples. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wesson, M., & Salmon, K. (2001). Drawing and showing: Helping children to report emotionally laden events. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 15(3), 301–319. doi: 10.1002/acp. 706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Whitmer, A. J., & Banich, M. T. (2007). Inhibition versus switching deficits in different forms of rumination. Psychological Science, 18(6), 546–553. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01936.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wierzbicki, M., & Sayler, M. K. (2006). Depression and engagement in pleasant and unpleasant activities in normal children. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47(4), 499–505. doi:0.1002/1097-4679(199107)47:4<499::AID-JCLP2270470405>3.0.CO;2-Q.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Massachusetts School of Professional PsychologyBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations