National Patient Safety Guidelines

And Strategies to Develop Programs at the Local Level
  • William Greif
  • Pascal FuchshuberEmail author


Universal protocol is a process designed by the Joint Commission to prevent wrong site surgeries. In August 1998, the Joint Commission issued a Sentinel Event Alert examining the problem of wrong site surgery, including a review of 15 cases that had been reported to them.


Surgical Site Infection Joint Commission Front Line Staff Safety Attitude Questionnaire Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis 
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Selected Readings

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    Joint commission Sentinel Event Alert, 5 Dec 2001.Google Scholar
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    Leonard M, Frankel A, Simmonds T, Vega K. Achieving Safe and Reliable Healthcare strategies and solutions. 2004 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives.Google Scholar
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    Dellinger EP, Hausmann SM, Bratzler DW, Johnson RM, Daniel DM, Bunt KM, et al. Hospitals collaborate to decrease surgical site infections. Am J Surg. 2005;190:9–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    G Miller, SCIP’s SSI Benchmarks likely unattainable, studies indicate, General Surgery News, V3, 9/2009.Google Scholar
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    The Checklist. If something so simple can transform intensive care, what else can it do? The New Yorker, 10/2007.Google Scholar
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    World Health Organization, Safe Surgery Saves Lives, The Second Global Patient Safety Challenge.Google Scholar
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    Hales B, Pronovost P. The checklist – a tool for error management and performance improvement. J Critical Care. 2006;21:241–35.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, The Permanente Medical GroupKaiser Medical CenterWalnut CreekUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

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