In the Soviet Union there were three separate organizations that ran the country – the Communist Party, the government and the military. The Party was in overall charge through its Central Committee and the executive Politburo. The Party business was managed by a Secretariat that included a Secretary of Defense Industry and Space, and a Department of Sciences. The Soviet Academy of Sciences, while claiming to be independent, was implicitly part of the Department of Sciences and hence a Party organization. It ran the Inter-Department Scientific and Technical Council on Space Exploration (MNTS KI; Mezhduvedomstvennyi N auchnoTekhnicheskii Soviet po Kosmicheskim Issledovaniyam) which was nominally responsible for specifying the national policy and strategy for the space program.
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