Advertisement

Deaf Parents as Sources of Positive Development and Resilience for Deaf Infants

  • Lynne Sanford KoesterEmail author
  • Nicole McCray
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we explore the idea that deaf parents may play a particularly important role in the lives of deaf infants and provide evidence to support this particularly in relation to social–emotional development. Consistent with the overall theme of this volume, we assert that deaf parents might well be considered “protective factors” in the lives of young deaf children and that hearing parents, as well as early intervention professionals, can benefit from the knowledge gained through observing and understanding the many intuitively appropriate behaviors incorporated by deaf parents into their daily interactions with deaf children. The chapter begins with a brief discussion of risk and resiliency, specifically in relation to several important aspects of infant development: temperament, emotional regulation, and attachment to significant caregivers. Sameroff’s (Hum Dev, 18:65–79, 1975) Transactional Model is then introduced to emphasize the reciprocal nature of early parent–child interactions and to draw attention to the contributions made by each participating member – in this case, parent and infant – of the interacting dyad. For purposes of illustrating these concepts and to focus on the role of deaf parents, two vignettes are included, which describe hypothetical interactions between a deaf infant and either a deaf or hearing parent. The theory of Intuitive Parenting (Papoušek & Papoušek, Psychobiology of the human newborn, pp. 367–390, 1982; Papoušek & Papoušek, Handbook of infant development, 2nd ed., pp. 669–720, 1987) is included as a means of explaining the many nonconscious behaviors often used by both deaf and hearing parents to facilitate communication with a prelingual infant. Prior to a discussion of implications and conclusions, the chapter also addresses the importance of social support for parents of deaf infants and the child’s later development of empathy and literacy skills.

Keywords

Hearing Loss Emotional Regulation Deaf Child Deaf Community Difficult Temperament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  2. Barton, M. L., & Robins, D. (2000). Regulatory disorders. In C. H. Zeanah Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed., pp. 311–325). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bornstein, M. H. (1995). Handbook of parenting. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  4. Bornstein, M. H., & Lamb, M. E. (1992). Social development in infancy. In M. Bornstein & M. Lamb (Eds.), Development in infancy: An introduction (pp. 409–447). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  5. Bretherton, I. (1985). Attachment theory: Retrospect and prospect. Monographs for the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, 3–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chess, S., & Thomas, A. (1996). Temperament: Theory and practice. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  8. Crockenberg, S., & Leerkes, E. (2000). Infant social and emotional development in family context. In C. H. Zeanah Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed., pp. 60–90). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. DeCasper, A. J., & Fifer, W. P. (1980). Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers’ voices. Science, 208, 1174–1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Erting, C. J., Prezioso, C., & Hynes, M. (1990/1994). The interactional context of deaf mother-infant communication. In V. Volterra & C. J. Erting (Eds.), From gesture to language in hearing and deaf children (pp. 97–106). Heidelberg/Washington, DC: Springer (1990)/Gallaudet University Press (1994).Google Scholar
  11. Erting, C. J., Thumann-Prezioso, C., & Benedict, B. S. (2000). Bilingualism in a deaf family: Fingerspelling in early childhood. In P. Spencer, C. J. Erting, & M. Marschark (Eds.), The deaf child in the family and at school: Essays in honor of Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans (pp. 41–54). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  12. Fagan, J. F. (1979). The origins of facial pattern recognition. In M. H. Bornstein & W. Kessen (Eds.), Psychological development from infancy (pp. 83–113). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.Google Scholar
  13. Goldin-Meadow, S., & Mayberry, R. I. (2001). How do profoundly deaf children learn to read? Learning Disabilities: Research & Practice, 16(4), 222–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hadadian, A. (1995). Attitudes toward deafness and security of attachment relationships among young deaf children and their parents. Early Education and Development, 6, 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hans, S. L., & Wakschlag, L. S. (2000). Early parenthood in context: Implications for development and intervention. In C. H. Zeanah Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  16. Harris, M., Clibbens, J., Chasin, J., & Tibbits, R. (1989). The social context of early sign language development. First Language, 9, 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hintermair, M. (2004). Sense of coherence: A relevant resource in the coping process of mothers of deaf and hard-of-hearing children? Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9(1), 15–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hintermair, M. (2006). Parental resources, parental stress, and socioemotional development of deaf and hard of hearing children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11(4), 493–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jambor, E., & Elliott, M. (2005). Self-esteem and coping strategies among deaf students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 10(1), 63–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Juffer, F., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2007). Methods of the video-feedback programs to promote positive parenting. In F. Juffer, M. J. Bakermans-Kranenbury, & M. H. van Ijzendoorn (Eds.), Promoting positive parenting: An attachment based intervention (pp. 11–22). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  21. Koester, L. S. (1992). Intuitive parenting as a model for understanding parent-infant interactions when one partner is deaf. American Annals of the Deaf, 137(4), 362–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Koester, L. S. (1995). Characteristics of face-to-face interactions between hearing mothers and their deaf or hearing 9-month-olds. Infant Behavior and Development, 18(2), 145–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Koester, L. S., Brooks, L. R., & Karkowski, A. M. (1998). A comparison of the vocal patterns of deaf and hearing mother-infant dyads during face-to-face interactions. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 3(4), 290–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Koester, L. S., Brooks, L. R., & Traci, M. A. (2000). Tactile contact by deaf and hearing mothers during face-to-face interactions with their infants. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 5(2), 127–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koester, L. S., Lahti-Harper, E., & McCray, N. (2009, April). Infant-directed signing and intuitive behaviors of Deaf mothers during interactions with their infants. Poster presented at the Biennial Meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, Co.Google Scholar
  26. Koester, L. S., & Meadow-Orlans, K. P. (1999). Responses to interactive stress: Infants who are deaf or hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 144, 395–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Koester, L. S., & Meadow-Orlans, K. P. (2004a). Attachment behaviors at 18 months. In K. P. Meadow-Orlans, P. E. Spencer, & L. S. Koester (Eds.), The world of deaf infants: A longitudinal study (pp. 134–146). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Koester, L. S., & Meadow-Orlans, K. P. (2004b). Interactions of mothers and 9-month-old infants: Temperament and stress. In K. P. Meadow-Orlans, P. E. Spencer, & L. S. Koester (Eds.), The world of deaf infants: A longitudinal study (pp. 57–65). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koester, L. S., Middleton, M., Traci, M. A., & Klöhn, B. (2008). Von der Kindheit zum jungen Erwachsenenalter: Entwicklungspsychologische Verläufe gehörloser Kinder (“From early childhood to adolescence: Developmental pathways of deaf children”). Heilpädagogische Forschung, XXXIV(3), 132–146.Google Scholar
  30. Koester, L. S., Papoušek, H., & Papoušek, M. (1987). Psychobiological models of infant development: Influences on the concept of intuitive parenting. Psychobiology and Early Development, 46, 275–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Koester, L. S., Papousek, H., & Smith-Gray, S. (2000). Intuitive parenting, communication, and interaction with deaf infants. In P. Spencer, C. Erting, & M. Marschark (Eds.), The deaf child in the family and at school: Essays in honor of Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans (pp. 55–71). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  32. Kyle, J. G., & Ackerman, J. (1990). Signing for infants: Deaf mothers using BSL in the early stages of development. In W. H. Edmondson & F. Karlsson (Eds.), SLR ’87: Papers from the Fourth International Symposium on Sign Language Research, Lappeenranta, Finland, July 15–19, 1987 (pp. 200–211). Hamburg: Signum.Google Scholar
  33. Launer, P. (1982). Early signs of motherhood: Motherese in American Sign Language. Paper presented at the American Speech-Language Hearing Association, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  34. Lederberg, A. R., & Prezbindowski, A. K. (2000). Impact of child deafness on mother-toddler interaction: Strengths and weaknesses. In P. E. Spencer, C. J. Erting, & M. Marschark (Eds.), The deaf child in the family and at school. Essays in honor of Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans (pp. 73–92). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  35. Lounds, J. J., Borkowski, J. G., Whitman, T. L., Maxwell, S. E., & Weed, K. (2005). Adolescent parenting and attachment during infancy and early childhood. Parenting: Science and Practice, 5, 91–118.Google Scholar
  36. Maestes y Moores, J. (1980). Early linguistic environment: Interactions of deaf parents with their infants. Sign Language Studies, 26, 1–13.Google Scholar
  37. Marschark, M. (1993). Psychological development of deaf children. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Marschark, M. (2007). Raising and educating a deaf child (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Meadow-Orlans, K. P. (1995). Sources of stress for mothers and fathers of deaf and hard of hearing infants. American Annals of the Deaf, 140, 352–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Meadow-Orlans, K. P., Mertens, D. M., & Sass-Lehrer, M. A. (2002). Parents and their deaf children: The early years. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University.Google Scholar
  41. Meadow-Orlans, K. P., & Steinberg, A. (1993). Effects of infant hearing loss and maternal support on mother-infant interactions at 18 months. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14, 407–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mohay, H. (2000). Language in sight: Mothers’ strategies for making language visually accessible to deaf children. In P. E. Spencer, C. J. Erting, & M. Marschark (Eds.), The deaf child in the family and at school: Essays in honor of Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans (pp. 151–166). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  43. Nikolaraizi, M., & Hadjikakou, K. (2006). The role of educational experiences in the development of deaf identity. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11(4), 477–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Orlansky, M. D., & Heward, W. L. (1981). Voices: Interviews with handicapped people. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.Google Scholar
  45. Padden, C., & Humphries, T. (1988). Deaf in America: Voices from a culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Papoušek, H., & Bornstein, M. H. (1992). Didactic interactions: Intuitive parental support of vocal and verbal development in human infants. In H. Papoušek, U. Jurgens, & M. Papoušek (Eds.), Nonverbal vocal communication: Comparative and developmental approaches (pp. 209–229). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Papoušek, H., & Papoušek, M. (1982). Integration into the social world: Survey of research. In P. Stratton (Ed.), Psychobiology of the human newborn (pp. 367–390). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  48. Papoušek, H., & Papoušek, M. (1987). Intuitive parenting: A dialectic counterpart to the infant’s integrative competence. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (2nd ed., pp. 669–720). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  49. Papoušek, M. (2008). Disorders of behavior and emotional regulation: Clinical evidence for a new diagnostic concept. In M. Papoušek, M. Schieche, & H. Wurmser (Eds.), Disorders of behavioral and emotional regulation in the first years of life (pp. 53–84). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.Google Scholar
  50. Pizer, G., & Meier, R. P. (2008). Child-directed signing in ASL and children’s development of joint attention. In R. M. de Quadros (Ed.), Proceedings of the 9th international conference on theoretical issues in sign language research, 2006, Florianopolis, Brazil. Petrópolis/RJ. Brazil: Editora Arara Azul.Google Scholar
  51. Prendergast, S. G., & McCollum, J. A. (1996). Let’s talk: The effect of maternal hearing status on interactions with toddlers who are deaf. American Annals of the Deaf, 141, 11–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Quittner, A. L. (1991). Coping with a hearing-impaired child: A model of adjustment to chronic stress. In J. H. Johnson & S. B. Johnson (Eds.), Advances in child health psychology (pp. 206–223). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.Google Scholar
  53. Sameroff, A. S. (1975). Transactional models in early social relations. Human Development, 18, 65–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sass-Lehrer, M., & Bodner-Johnson, B. (2003). Early intervention: Current approaches to family-centered programming. In M. Marschark & P. E. Spencer (Eds.), Deaf studies, language, and education (pp. 65–81). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Schaffer, H. R. (1979). Acquiring the concept of the dialogue. In M. H. Bornstein & W. Kessen (Eds.), Psychological development from infancy: Image to intention (pp. 279–305). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  56. Schick, B., de Villiers, J., de Villiers, P., & Hoffmeister, R. (2007). Language and theory of mind: A study of deaf children. Child Development, 78, 376–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Spencer, P. E. (2003). Parent-child interaction: Implications for intervention and development. In B. Bodner-Johnson & M. Sass-Lehrer (Eds.), The young deaf or hard of hearing child: A family-centered approach to early education (pp. 333–371). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  58. Stern, D. N. (1985). The interpersonal world of the infant: A view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  59. Swisher, M. V. (1992). The role of parents in developing visual turn-taking in their young deaf children. American Annals of the Deaf, 137, 92–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Swisher, M. V. (2000). Learning to converse: How deaf mothers support the development of attention and conversational skills in their young deaf children. In P. E. Spencer, C. J. Erting, & M. Marschark (Eds.), The deaf child in the family and at school: Essays in honor of Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans (pp. 21–39). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  61. Thompson, D. C., McPhillips, H., Davis, R. L., Lieu, T. A., Homer, C. J., & Helfand, M. (2001). Universal Newborn Hearing Screening: Summary of evidence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286, 2000–2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Thompson, R. A. (1999). The individual child: Temperament, emotion, self, and personality. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental psychology: An advanced text book (4th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  63. Waxman, R. P., & Spencer, P. E. (1997). What mothers do to support infant visual attention: Sensitivities to age and hearing status. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2, 104–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Werner, E. (2000). Protective factors and individual resilience. In J. P. Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Yates, T. M., Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L. A. (2003). Rethinking resilience: A developmental process perspective. In S. S. Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 243–266). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yoshinaga-Itano, C., Sedey, A. L., Coulter, D. K., & Mehl, A. L. (1998). Language of early- and later- identified children with hearing loss. Pediatrics, 102, 1161–1171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe University of MontanaMissoulaUSA

Personalised recommendations