Community Cultural Wealth and Deaf Adolescents’ Resilience

  • Jason ListmanEmail author
  • Katherine D. Rogers
  • Peter C. Hauser


Adolescence is the period when a child’s identity is developing and evolving. During the identity development period, deaf students could also build resilience as deaf individuals living in a society where the majority is hearing. This chapter, which focuses primarily on academic success, discusses the protective factors that ethnic minorities acquire from their cultural communities. These protective factors seem to support minority groups in building resilience. With this concept in mind, could the same factors apply to deaf adolescents’ psychosocial and resilience development? Clearly, cultural capital and community cultural wealth plays a huge role in these areas of development and there is some empirical support in relation to this notion. These findings appear to support a theoretical framework which could be helpful in designing deaf adolescents’ resilience-building programs. The authors propose that deaf-centric aspirational, family, social, linguistic, resistant, and navigational capitals can be learned from the deaf community, role models, and teachers and parents. The availability of such resources could promote resilience and foster academic success in deaf adolescents.


Cultural Capital Attachment Style Deaf Child Deaf People Deaf Community 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number SBE-0541953 to the Gallaudet University Science of Learning Center on Visual Language and Visual Learning. Special thanks to Betsy MacDonald, Alys Young, and Team HaDo for feedback on earlier drafts of this chapter.


  1. Andrews, B., & Wilding, J. M. (2004). The relation of depression and anxiety to life-stress and achievement in students. British Journal of Psychology, 95, 509–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailystok, E., Craik, F. I., & Ryan, J. (2006). Executive control in a modified antisaccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(6), 1341–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bat-Chava, Y. (1993). Antecedents of self-esteem in deaf people: A meta-analytic review. Rehabilitation Psychology, 38, 221–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bat-Chava, Y. (2000). Diversity of deaf identities. American Annals of the Deaf, 145, 420–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauman, D. (2004). Audism: Exploring the metaphysics of oppression. Journal of Deaf Studies and Education, 9, 239–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bienvenu, M. J. (2008, October). Deaf culture and deafhood. Keynote address, Campus Week of Dialogue, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY.Google Scholar
  7. Bodner-Johnson, B. (1986). The family environment and achievement of deaf students: A discriminant analysis. Exceptional Children, 52, 443–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Borum, V. (2007). African American mothers with deaf children: A womanist conceptual framework. Families in Society, 88(4), 595–604.Google Scholar
  9. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, D., & Evans, J. (2004). Reproducing gender? Intergenerational links and the male PE teacher as a cultural conduit in teaching physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 23, 43–70.Google Scholar
  11. Calderon, R., Greenberg, M. T., & Kusche, C. A. (1991). The influence of family coping on the cognitive and social skills of deaf children. In D. S. Martin (Ed.), Advance in cognition, education, and deafness (pp. 195–200). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cole, M., Cole, S., & Lightfoot, C. (2005). The development of children. New York: Worth.Google Scholar
  13. Colyar, J. E. (2006). Neighborhood academic initiative: Connecting culture and college preparation. In M. B. Lee (Ed.), Ethnicity matters: Rethinking how Black, Hispanic, & Indian students prepare for and succeed in college (pp. 39–54). New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  14. Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review, 96, 608–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dobosh, P. K. (2002). The use of the Trauma Symptom Inventory with deaf individuals who have experienced sexual abuse and assault. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  16. Erikson, E. H. (1965). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  17. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: youth and crisis. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  18. Erting, C. J. (1985). Cultural conflict in a school for deaf children. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 16(3), 225–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fass, M. E., & Tubman, J. G. (2002). The influence of parental and peer attachment on college students’ academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 39(5), 561–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Feeney, J., & Ryan, S. (1994). Attachment style and affect regulations: Relationships with health behavior and family experiences of illness in a student sample. Health Psychology, 13, 334–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferguson, K. M. (2006). Social capital predictors of children’s school status in Mexico. International Journal of Social Welfare, 15(4), 321–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Foster, S. (1989). Social alienation and peer identification: A study of the social construction of deafness. Human Organization, 48, 226–235.Google Scholar
  23. Foster, S., & MacLeod, J. (2004). The role of mentoring relationships in the career development of successful deaf persons. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9(4), 442–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Garmezy, N. (1991). Resilience and vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes associated to poverty. American Behavioral Scientist, 34, 416–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hauser, P. C., O’Hearn, A., McKee, M., Steider, A., & Thew, D. (2010). Deaf epistemology: Deafhood and deafness. American Annals of the Deaf, 154, 486–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hauser, P. C., Wills, K., & Isquith, P. K. (2006). Hard of hearing, deafness, and being deaf. In J. D. Farmer & S. Warschausky (Eds.), Neurodevelopmental disabilities: Clinical research and practice (pp. 119–131). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  27. Heiss, J. (1981). The social psychology of interaction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  28. Hindley, P., Hill, P. D., McGuigan, S., & Kitson, N. (1994). Psychiatric disorder in deaf and hearing impaired children and young people: A prevalence study. Journal of Psychiatry and Psychology, 35, 917–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hintermair, M. (2000). Hearing impairment, social networks, and coping: The need for families with hearing-impaired children to relate to other parents and to hearing-impaired adults. American Annals of the Deaf, 145(1), 41–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hintermair, M. (2006). Parental resources, parental stress, and socio-emotional development of deaf and hard of hearing children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11(4), 493–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holcomb, T. K. (1997). Development of deaf bicultural identity. American Annals of the Deaf, 142(2), 89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hudley, C. A. (1992). Using role models to improve the reading attitudes of ethnic minority high school girls. Journal of Reading, 36(3), 182–188.Google Scholar
  33. Humphries, T. (2008). Audism. Unpublished manuscript, University of California, San Diego.Google Scholar
  34. Kao, G., & Rutherford, L. T. (2007). Does social capital still matter? Immigrant minority disadvantage in social capital and its effects on academic achievement. Sociological Perspectives, 50, 27–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Keating, E., & Mirus, G. (2003). Examining interactions across language modalities: Deaf ­children and hearing peers at school. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 43, 115–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lane, H. (1992). The mask of benevolence: Disability and the deaf community. San Diego, CA: DawnSignPress.Google Scholar
  37. Lederberg, A. (1993). The impact of deafness on mother-child and peer relationships. In M. Marschark & M. D. Clark (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on deafness (pp. 93–119). Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Lee, M. B. (2006). Ethnicity matters: Rethinking how Black, Hispanic, & Indian students prepare for & succeed in college. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  39. Li, G. (2007). Home environment and second language acquisition: The importance of family capital. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 28(3), 285–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Luckner, J. L., & Velaski, A. (2004). Healthy families of children who are deaf. American Annals of the Deaf, 149, 324–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Luthar, S. S., & Zigler, E. (1991). Vulnerability and competence: A review of research on resilience in childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 6–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mann, J. R., Zhou, L., McKee, M., & McDermott, S. (2007). Children with hearing loss and increased risk of injury. Annals of Family Medicine, 5, 528–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Marjoribanks, K. (2005). Family background, adolescents’ educational aspirations, and Australian young adults’ education attainment. International Education Journal, 6(1), 104–112.Google Scholar
  45. Marschark, M. (2007). Raising and educating a deaf child: A comprehensive guide to the choices, controversies, and decisions faced by parents and educators. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Maxwell-McCaw, D. (2001). Acculturation and psychological well-being in deaf and hard of hearing people. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  47. McCubbin, L. (2001, August). Challenges to the definition of resilience. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  48. McKee, R. L. (2008). The construction of deaf children as marginal bilinguals in the mainstream. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11, 519–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McKinnon, C. (1999). Relationship representations of deaf adults. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: the Sciences & Engineering, 59(9-B), 5132.Google Scholar
  50. Meadow-Orlans, K. P., & Steinberg, A. G. (1993). Effects of infant hearing loss and maternal support on mother-infant interactions at 18 months. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14, 407–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mitchell, R., & Karchmer, M. (2004). Chasing the mythical ten percent: Parental hearing status of deaf and hard of hearing students in the United States. Sign Languages Studies, 4(2), 138–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Muus, R., & Porton, H. D. (1999). Adolescent behavior (5th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  53. Norman, E. (2000). Introduction: The strengths perspectives and resiliency enhancement: A nature partnership. In E. Norman (Ed.), Resiliency enhancement: Putting the strengths perspectives into social work practice (pp. 1–16). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Pervin, L. A. (2003). The science of personality (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Pierce, C. (1995). Stress analogs of racism and sexism: Terrorism, torture, and disaster. In C. Willie, P. Rieker, B. Kramer, & B. Brown (Eds.), Mental Health, racism and sexism (pp. 277–293). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburg Press.Google Scholar
  56. Pinderhughes, E. (1995). Empowering diverse populations: Family practice in the 21st century. Families in Society, 76, 131–140.Google Scholar
  57. Polat, F., Kalambouka, A., & Boyle, B. (2004). After secondary school, what? The transition of deaf young people from school to independent living. Deafness and Education International, 6(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
  58. Robinson, T., & Ward, J. V. (1991). A belief in self far greater than anyone’s disbelief: Cultivating resistance among African American female adolescents. Women and Therapy, 11, 87–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rosenblum, K. E., & Travis, T. C. (2004). Experiencing difference. In J. F. Healey & E. O’Brien (Eds.), Race, ethnicity, and gender: Selected readings (pp. 31–43). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.Google Scholar
  60. Solórzano, D. & Villalpando, O. (1998). Critical race theory, marginality, and the experience of minority students in higher education. In C. Torres & T. Mitchell (Eds.), Emerging issues in the sociology of education: Comparative perspectives (pp. 211–224). New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  61. South, S. J., Baumer, E. P., & Lutz, A. (2003). Interpreting community effects on youth education attainment. Youth & Society, 35(1), 3–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Steider, A. M. (2001). Attachment, curiosity, and health behaviors: A study of inter-relationships among deaf and hearing populations. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  63. Swidler, A. (1986). Culture in action: Symbols and strategies. American Sociological Review, 51, 273–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Takala, M., Kuusela, J., & Takala, E. (2000). “A good future for deaf children”: A five-year sign language intervention project. American Annals of the Deaf, 145(4), 366–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Thew, D. (2007, August). School to work transition for deaf and hard of hearing: Acculturation stress and resilience. Poster presented at the Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  66. Thumann-Prezioso, C. (2005). Deaf parents’ perspective on deaf education. Sign Language Studies, 5(4), 415–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Traxler, C. B. (2000). Measuring up to performance standards in reading and mathematics: Achievement of selected deaf and hard of hearing students in national norming of the 9th Edition Stanford Achievement Test. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 5, 337–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Trueba, E. T. (2006). Forward. In M. B. Lee (Ed.), Ethnicity matters: Rethinking how Black, Hispanic & Indian students prepare for and succeed in college (pp. xiii–xv). New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  69. Turner, G. (2007). ‘I’ll tell you later’: On institutional audism. Deaf Worlds: International Journal of Deaf Studies, 22, 50–70.Google Scholar
  70. Villenas, S., & Moreno, M. (2001). To valerse por si misma between race, capitalism, and patriarchy: Latina mother-daughter pedagogies in North Carolina. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 14, 671–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Watkins, S., Pittman, P., & Walden, B. (1998). The deaf mentor experimental project for young children who are deaf and their families. American Annals of the Deaf, 143, 29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Werner, E. E. (1989). High-risk children in young adulthood: A longitudinal study from birth to 32 years. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 72–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Werner, E. E. (1995). Resilience in development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 81–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wilkens, C. P., & Hehir, T. P. (2008). Deaf education and bridging social capital: A theoretical approach. American Annals of the Deaf, 153(3), 275–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Williamson, C. E. (2007). Black deaf students: A model for educational success. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Woll, B. (2009). Positive support: A UK study of deaf children and their families. Paper presented at the 8th Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Conference, Dallas, TX.Google Scholar
  77. Yosso, T. J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8, 69–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Young, A., Green, L., & Rogers, K. (2008). Resilience and deaf children: A literature review. Deafness and Education International, 10(1), 40–55.Google Scholar
  79. Young, A. M., Griggs, M., & Sutherland, H. (2000). Deaf child and family intervention services using deaf adult role models: A national survey of development, practice and progress. London: RNID.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason Listman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katherine D. Rogers
  • Peter C. Hauser
  1. 1.Department of American Sign Language and Interpreting EducationNational Technical Institution of the Deaf (NTID)RochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations