Introduction

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 162)

Abstract

Digital holography (DH) is an emerging technology of new paradigm in general imaging applications. By replacing the photochemical procedures of conventional holography with electronic imaging, a door opens to a wide range of new capabilities. Although many of the remarkable properties of holography have been known for decades, their practical applications have been constrained because of the cumbersome procedures and stringent requirements on equipment. A real-time process is not feasible except for special materials and effects, such as the photorefractives. In digital holography, the holographic interference pattern is optically generated by superposition of object and reference beams, which is digitally sampled by a CCD camera and transferred to a computer as an array of numbers. The propagation of optical field is completely and accurately described by diffraction theory, which allows numerical reconstruction of the image as an array of complex numbers representing the amplitude and phase of the optical field. Digital holography offers a number of significant advantages such as the ability to acquire holograms rapidly, availability of complete amplitude and phase information of the optical field, and versatility of the interferometric and image processing techniques. Indeed, digital holography by numerical diffraction of optical fields allows imaging and image processing techniques that are difficult or not feasible in real space holography. We begin by giving a brief overview of the historical development of holography, both the conventional or analog holography and the digital holography.

Keywords

Burning Glycerol Coherence Explosive Microbe 

References

  1. 1.
    D. Gabor, “A new microscope principle,” Nature 161, 777–778 (1948).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Gabor, “Microscopy by reconstructed wavefronts,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A197, 454–487 (1949).ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Gabor, “Microscopy by reconstructed wavefronts: II,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B64, 449–469 (1951).ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. L. Bragg, “A new type of x-ray microscope,” Nature 143, 678 (1939).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. L. Bragg, “The x-ray microscope,” Nature 149, 470–471 (1942).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. L. Rogers, “Experiments in diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 63A, 193–221 (1952).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. M. A. El-Sum, and P. Kirkpatrick, “Microscopy by reconstructed wavefronts,” Phys. Rev. 85, 763 (1952).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. E. Haine, and T. Mulvey, “Diffraction Microscopy with X-Rays,” Nature 170, 202–203 (1952).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. N. Leith, and J. Upatniek, “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123–1130 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. N. Leith, and J. Upatnieks, “Wavefront reconstruction with continuous-tone objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1377–1381 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. N. Leith, and J. Upatnieks, “Wavefront reconstruction with diffused illumination and three-dimensional objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1295–1301 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. J. Caulfield, “Emmett Leith: a personal perspective,” Applied Optics 47, A119-A122 (2008).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P.Hariharan, Optical Holography: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, 2 ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1996).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Faigel, and M. Tegze, “X-ray holography,” Reports on Progress in Physics 62, 355–393 (1999).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. C. Solem, and G. C. Baldwin, “Micro-Holography of Living Organisms,” Science 218, 229–235 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. N. Denisyuk, “On the reproduction of the optical properties of an object by the wave field of its scattered radiation,” Opt. & Spectr. 15, 279–284 (1963).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. N. Denisyuk, “On the reproduction of the optical properties of an object by the wave field of its scattered radiation,” Opt. & Spectr. 18, 152–157 (1965).ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. A. Benton, “Hologram Reconstructions with Extended Incoherent Sources,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 59, 1545–1546 (1969).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. A. Fisher, Optical Phase Conjugation (Elsevier, 1983).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Kreis, Handbook of holographic interferometry: Optical and digital methods (Wiley-VCH, 2005).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. F. Doval, “A systematic approach to TV holography,” Measurement Science & Technology 11, R1-R36 (2000).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. Collings, Optical pattern recognition using holographic techniques (Addison-Wesley, 1988).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. Gabor, and W. P. Goss, “Interference Microscope with Total Wavefront Reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 849–858 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C. Knox, “Holographic microscopy as a technique for recording dynamic microscopic subjects,” Science 153, 989–990 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. Snow, and Vandewar.R, “An Application of Holography to Interference Microscopy,” Applied Optics 7, 549–554 (1968).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. W. Goodman, and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital Image Formation from Electronically Detected Holograms,” Applied Physics Letters 11, 77–79 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Fourier-Transform Holographic Microscope,” Applied Optics 31, 4973–4978 (1992).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    U. Schnars, and W. P. O. Juptner, “Digital Recording and Reconstruction of Holograms in Hologram Interferometry and Shearography,” Applied Optics 33, 4373–4377 (1994).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    U. Schnars, and W. Juptner, “Direct Recording of Holograms by a Ccd Target and Numerical Reconstruction,” Applied Optics 33, 179–181 (1994).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    U. Schnars, “Direct Phase Determination in Hologram Interferometry with Use of Digitally Recorded Holograms,” Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 11, 2011–2015 (1994).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Optics Letters 24, 291–293 (1999).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Simultaneous amplitude-contrast and quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by numerical reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms,” Applied Optics 38, 6994–7001 (1999).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    W. Jueptner, and U. Schnars, Digital Holography: Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2005).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, “Whole optical wavefields reconstruction by digital holography,” Optics Express 9, 294–302 (2001).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    C. J. Mann, L. F. Yu, and M. K. Kim, “Movies of cellular and sub-cellular motion by digital holographic microscopy,” Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 21 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. J. Mann, L. F. Yu, C. M. Lo, and M. K. Kim, “High-resolution quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by digital holography,” Optics Express 13, 8693–8698 (2005).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. Kuhn, F. Charriere, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Axial sub-nanometer accuracy in digital holographic microscopy,” Measurement Science & Technology 19, (2008).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Applied Optics 42, 1938–1946 (2003).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Gass, A. Dakoff, and M. K. Kim, “Phase imaging without 2-pi ambiguity by multiwavelength digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1141–1143 (2003).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    I. Yamaguchi, and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Optics Letters 22, 1268–1270 (1997).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    W. B. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98, 11301–11305 (2001).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    U. Schnars, and W. P. O. Juptner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms," Measurement Science & Technology 13, R85-R101 (2002).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    I. Yamaguchi, “Holography, speckle, and computers,” Optics and Lasers in Engineering 39, 411–429 (2003).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Perez-Cabre, M. S. Millan, and B. Javidi, “Optical Techniques for Information Security,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1128–1148 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    B. R. Brown, and A. W. Lohmann, “Complex Spatial Filtering with Binary Masks,” Applied Optics 5, 967–969 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. Hutton, “Fast-Fourier-transform holography: recent results,” Opt. Lett. 3, 30–32 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    L. Yaroslavsky, Digital holography and digital image processing: principles, methods, algorithms (Kluwer Academic, 2004).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    A. W. Lohmann, and D. P. Paris, “Binary Fraunhofer Holograms Generated by Computer,” Applied Optics 6, 1739–1748 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations