Advertisement

Neuropsychological Considerations in Child and Adolescent Anxiety

  • Michael J. Larson
  • Mikle South
  • Tricia Merkley
Chapter

Abstract

Anxiety is characterized by feelings of apprehension, persistent worry, and frequent somatic complaints (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Symptoms present along a continuum from mild fear when a child is separated from his or her parents, to incapacitating flashbacks of previous traumatic events. With a wide range of symptoms and presentations, it is not surprising that the relationship between behavioral manifestations of anxiety and neuropsychological functioning is very complex.

Keywords

Traumatic Brain Injury Anxiety Disorder Fractional Anisotropy Diffusion Tensor Image Social Anxiety 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adams, W. V., & Sheslow, D. V. (1990). Wide range assessment of memory and learning. Wilmington: Wide Range Inc.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. Batchelor, J., Harvey, A. G., & Bryant, R. A. (1995). Stroop colour word test as a measure of attentional deficit following mild head injury. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 9, 180–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beers, S., & De Bellis, M. D. (2002). Neuropsychological function in children with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 483–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beers, S., Rosenberg, D., Dick, E., Williams, T., O’Hearn, K., Birmaher, B., et al. (1999). Neuropsychological study of frontal lobe function in psychotropic naive children wiht obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 777–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beesdo, K., Lau, J. Y., Guyer, A. E., McClure-Tone, E. B., Monk, C. S., Nelson, E. E., et al. (2009). Common and distinct amygdala-function perturbations in depressed vs. anxious adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 275–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behar, D., Rapoport, J. L., Berg, C. J., Denekla, M. B., Mann, L., Cox, C., et al. (1984). Computerized tomography and neuropsychological test measures in adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 363–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Benton, A., & Hamsher, K. (1976). Multilingual aphasia examination. Iowa City: University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  9. Bloom, D. R., Levin, H. S., Ewing-Cobbs, L., Saunders, A. E., Song, J., Fletcher, J. M., et al. (2001). Lifetime and novel psychiatric disorders after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 572–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bodas, J., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). Test anxiety: A cross-cultural perspective. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8, 65–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Gray, J. R., Molfese, D. L., & Snyder, A. (2001). Anterior cingulate cortex and response conflict: Effects of frequency, inhibition and errors. Cerebral Cortex, 11, 825–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bremner, J. D., Elzinga, B., Schmahl, C., & Vermetten, E. (2008). Structural and functional plasticity of the human brain in posttraumatic stress disorder. Progress in Brain Research, 167, 171–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buckelew, S. P., & Hannay, H. J. (1986). Relationships among anxiety, defensiveness, sex, task difficulty, and performance on various neuropsychological tasks. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63, 711–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cannistraro, P. A., Makris, N., Howard, J. D., Wedig, M. M., Hodge, S. M., Wilhelm, S., et al. (2007). A diffusion tensor imaging study of white matter in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 24, 440–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cannon, B. J. (1999). Relative interference on Logical Memory I Story A versus Story B of the Wechsler Memory Scale-revised in a clinical sample. Applied Neuropsychology, 6, 178–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Caplan, R., Siddarth, P., Gurbani, S., Hanson, R., Sankar, R., & Shields, W. D. (2005). Depression and anxiety disorders in pediatric epilepsy. Epilepsia, 46, 720–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carrion, V. G., Weems, C. F., Eliez, S., Patwardhan, A., Brown, W., Ray, R. D., et al. (2001). Attenuation of frontal asymmetry in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 943–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carrion, V. G., Weems, C. F., & Reiss, A. L. (2007). Stress predicts brain changes in children: A pilot longitudinal study on youth stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and the hippocampus. Pediatrics, 119, 509–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chappell, M. S., Blanding, Z. B., Silverstein, M. E., Takahashi, M., Newman, B., Gubi, A., et al. (2005). Test anxiety and academic performance in undergraduate and graduate students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 268–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chavez, E. L., Trautt, G. M., Brandon, A., & Steyaert, J. (1983). Effects of test anxiety and sex of subject on neuropsychological test performance: Finger tapping, trail making, digit span and digit symbol tests. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56, 923–929.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cook, F., Ciorciari, J., Varker, T., & Devilly, G. J. (2009). Changes in long term neural connectivity following psychological trauma. Clinical Neurophysiology, 120, 309–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cottraux, J., & Gerard, D. (1998). Neuroimaging and neuroanatomical issues in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In R. P. Swinson, M. M. Anotony, S. Rachman, & M. A. Richter (Eds.), Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 154–180). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. Dalgleish, T., Taghavi, R., Neshat-Doost, H., Moradi, A., Canterbury, R., & Yule, W. (2003). Patterns of processing bias for emotional information across clinical disorders: A comparison of attention, memory, and prospective cognition in children and adolescents with depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 32, 81–93.Google Scholar
  24. Damsa, C., Kosel, M., & Moussally, J. (2008). Current status of brain imaging in anxiety disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 22, 96–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Bellis, M. D., Casey, B. J., Dahl, R., Birmaher, B., Williamson, D. E., Thomas, K. M., et al. (2000). A pilot study of amygdala volumes in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 51–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Bellis, M. D., Keshavan, M. S., Clark, D. B., Casey, B. J., Giedd, J. N., Boring, A. M., et al. (1999). A. E. Bennett Research Award. Developmental traumatology part II: Brain development. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1271–1284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Delis, D. C., Kramer, J. H., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B. A. (1987). California verbal learning test. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  28. Delis, D. C., Kramer, J. H., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B. A. (1994). California verbal learning test–children’s version. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  29. Domschke, K., Ohrmann, P., Braun, M., Suslow, T., Bauer, J., Hohoff, C., et al. (2008). Influence of the catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met genotype on amygdala and prefrontal cortex emotional processing in panic disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 163, 13–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Emerson, C. S., Mollet, G. A., & Harrison, D. W. (2005). Anxious-depression in boys: An evaluation of executive functioning. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 539–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Everson, H. T., Millsap, R. E., & Rodriguez, C. M. (1991). Isolating gender differences in test anxiety: A confirmatory factor analysis of the Test Anxiety Inventory. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51, 243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 4, 245–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Firetto, A. C. (1971). Subjectively reported anxiety as a discriminator of digit span performance. Psychological Reports, 28, 98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gambini, O., Abbruzzese, M., & Scarone, S. (1993). Smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movement and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 48, 191–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goossens, L., Schruers, K., Peeters, R., Griez, E., & Sunaert, S. (2006). Visual presentation of phobic stimuli: Amygdala activation via an extrageniculostriate pathway? Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 155, 113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gould, E., Tanapat, P., McEwen, B. S., Flugge, G., & Fuchs, E. (1998). Proliferation of granule cell precursors in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys is diminished by stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 3168–3171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Graver, C. J., & White, P. M. (2007). Neuropsychological effects of stress on social phobia with and without comorbid depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1193–1206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Greene, C. M., Braet, W., Johnson, K. A., & Bellgrove, M. A. (2008). Imaging the genetics of executive function. Biological Psychology, 79, 30–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Greisberg, S., & McKay, D. (2003). Neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A review and treatment implications. Clinical Psychology Reviews, 23, 95–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gualtieri, C. T., & Morgan, D. W. (2008). The frequency of cognitive impairment in patients with anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder: An unaccounted source of variance in clinical trials. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, 1122–1130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Guyer, A. E., Lau, J. Y., McClure-Tone, E. B., Parrish, J., Shiffrin, N. D., Reynolds, R. C., et al. (2008). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex function during anticipated peer evaluation in pediatric social anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 1303–1312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Heaton, R. K. (1981). Wisconsin card sorting test manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
  43. Hertzig, M. E. (1982). Stability and change in nonfocal neurological signs. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 231–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Horner, M. S., & Siegle, G. J. (2008). Integration of neuroimaging into clinical pediatric psychiatry? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1211–1212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jackowski, A. P., de Araujo, C. M., de Lacerda, A. L. T., de Jusus Mari, J., & Kaufman, J. (2009). Neurostructural imaging findings in children with post-traumatic stress disorder: Brief review. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 63, 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jackowski, A. P., Douglas-Palumberi, H., Jackowski, M., Win, L., Schultz, R. T., Staib, L. W., et al. (2008). Corpus callosum in maltreated children with posttraumatic stress disorder: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 162, 256–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Karl, A., Schaefer, M., Malta, L. S., Dorfel, D., Rohleder, N., & Werner, A. (2006). A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 1004–1031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Krain, A. L., Gotimer, K., Hefton, S., Ernst, M., Castellanos, F. X., Pine, D. S., et al. (2008). A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of uncertainty in adolescents with anxiety disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 563–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Krain, A. L., Hefton, S., Pine, D. S., Ernst, M., Castellanos, F. X., Klein, R. G., et al. (2006). An fMRI examination of developmental differences in the neural correlates of uncertainty and decision-making. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 47, 1023–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kristensen, H., & Torgersen, S. (2008). Is social anxiety disorder in childhood associated with developmental deficit/delay? European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 99–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Larson, M. J., Kaufman, D. A. S., Kellison, I. L., Schmalfuss, I. M., & Perlstein, W. M. (2009). Double jeopardy! The additive consequences of negative affect on performance-monitoring decrements following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 23, 433–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lenroot, R. K., Schmitt, J. E., Ordaz, S. J., Wallace, G. L., Neale, M. C., Lerch, J. P., et al. (2009). Differences in genetic and environmental influences on the human cerebral cortex associated with development during childhood and adolescence. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 163–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lewis, R., & Rennick, P. M. (1979). Manual for the repeatable cognitive-perceptual-motor battery. Grosse Point: Axon.Google Scholar
  54. Magarinos, A. M., Verdugo, J. M. G., & McEwen, B. S. (1997). Chronic stress alters synaptic terminal ­structure in hippocampus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 14002–14008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mantella, R. C., Butters, M. A., Dew, M. A., Mulsant, B. H., Begley, A. E., Tracey, B., et al. (2007). Cognitive impairment in late-life generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 673–679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mataix-Cols, D., Jungque, C., & Sanchez-Turet, M. (1999). Neuropsychological functioning in a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 898–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mathew, S. J., Coplan, J. D., & Gorman, J. M. (2001). Neurobiological mechanisms of social anxiety ­disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1558–1567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McClure, E. B., Monk, C. S., Nelson, E. E., Parrish, J., Adler, A., Blair, R. J., et al. (2007). Abnormal attention modulation of fear circuit function in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 568–576.Google Scholar
  59. Milham, M. P., Nugent, A. C., Drevets, W. C., Dickstein, D. S., Leibenluft, E., Ernst, M., et al. (2005). Selective reduction in amygdala volume in pediatric anxiety disorders: A voxel-based morphometry investigation. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 961–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Monk, C. S., Nelson, E. E., McClure, E. B., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Leibenluft, E., et al. (2006). Ventro­lateral prefrontal cortex activation and attentional bias in response to angry faces in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1091–1097.Google Scholar
  61. Monk, C. S., Telzer, Eh, Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Mai, X., Louro, H. M. C., et al. (2008). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to masked angry faces in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 568–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moradi, A. R., Doost, H. T. N., Taghavi, M. R., Yule, W., & Dalgeish, T. (1999). Everyday memory deficits in children and adolescents with PTSD: Performance on the Rivermead Behavioral Memory test. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 357–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nicaise, M. (1995). Treating test anxiety: A review of three approaches. Teacher Education and Practice, 11, 65–81.Google Scholar
  64. Oostdam, R., & Meijer, J. (2003). Influence of test anxiety on measurement of intelligence. Psychological Reports, 92, 3–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Paulus, M. P., Feinstein, J. S., Castillo, G., Simmons, A. N., & Stein, M. B. (2005). Dose-dependent decrease of activation in bilateral amygdala and insula by lorazepam during emotion processing. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 282–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pine, D. S., Guyer, A. E., & Leibenluft, E. (2008). Functional magnetic resonance imaging and pediatric anxiety. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1217–1221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pine, D. S., Wasserman, G. A., & Leibenluft, E. (1999). Memory and anxiety in prepubertal boys at risk for delinquency. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1024–1031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ponsford, J., Draper, K., & Schonberger, M. (2008). Functional outcome 10 years after traumatic brain injury: Its relationship with demographic, injury severity, and cognitive and emotional status. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14, 233–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rauch, S. L. (Ed.). (2003). Neuroimaging and the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Rauch, S. L., Wright, C. I., Martis, B., Busa, E., McMullin, K. G., Shin, L. M., et al. (2004). A magnetic resonance imaging study of cortical thickness in animal phobia. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 946–952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rey, A. (1941). L’examen psychologique dans les cas d’encephalopathie traumatique. Archives de Psycholo-gie, 28, 286–340.Google Scholar
  72. Sarason, S., & Mandler, G. (1952). Some correlates of test anxiety. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 810–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Savage, C. R., Deckersbach, T., Wilhelm, S., Rauch, S. L., Baer, L., Reid, T., et al. (2000). Strategic processing and episodic memory impairment in obsessive compulsive disorder. Neuropsychology, 14, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schienle, A., Schafer, A., Hermann, A., Rohrmann, S., & Vaitl, D. (2007). Symptom provocation and reduction in patients suffering from spider phobia: An fMRI study on exposure therapy. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 257, 486–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shin, M. S., Choi, H., Kim, H., Hwang, J. W., Kim, B. N., & Cho, S. C. (2008). A study of neuropsychological deficit in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder. European Psychiatry, 23, 512–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. South, M., Wolf, J., & Herlihy, L. (2009). Translating clinical child neuroscience into practice: New directions. In M.C. Roberts & R.G. Steele (Eds.), Handbook of pediatric psychology (4th ed.), 737–754.Google Scholar
  77. Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsyhcological tests: Adminis­tration, norms, and commentary. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Szeszko, P. R., Ardekani, B. A., Ashtari, M., Malhotra, A. K., Robinson, D. G., Bilder, R. M., et al. (2005). White matter abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 782–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Szeszko, P. R., Robinson, D. G., Alvir, J. M. M., Bilder, R. M., Lencz, T., Ashtari, M., et al. (1999). Orbital frontal and amygdala volume reductions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 913–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Teeter, P. A., Eckert, L., Nelson, A., Platten, P., Semrud, C. M., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2009). Assessment of behavior and personality in the neuropsychological diagnosis of children. In C. R. Reynolds & E. Fletcher-Janzen (Eds.), Handbook of clinical child neuropsychology. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  82. Tramontana, M. G., Hooper, S. R., Watts-English, T., Ellison, T., & Bethea, T. C. (2009). Neuropsychology of child psychopathology. In C. R. Reynolds & E. Fletcher-Janzen (Eds.), Handbook of clinical child neuropsychology (pp. 117–146). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tramontana, M. G., Sherrets, S. D., & Golden, C. J. (1980). Brain dysfunction in youngsters with ­psychiatric ­disorders: Application of Selz-Reitan rules for neuropsychological diagnosis. Clinical Neuropsychology, 2, 118–123.Google Scholar
  84. Uchida, R. R., Del-Ben, C. M., Busatto, G. F., Duran, F. L. S., Guimaraes, F. S., Crippa, J. A. S., et al. (2008). Regional gray matter abnormalities in panic disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 163, 21–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vasa, R. A., Gerring, J. P., Grados, M., Slimine, B., Christensen, J., Rising, W., et al. (2002). Anxiety after severe pediatric closed head injury. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 148–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vasa, R. A., Roberson-Nay, R., Klein, R. G., Mannuzza, S., Moulton, J. L., Guardino, M., et al. (2007). Memory deficits in children with and at risk for anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 24, 85–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Veale, D., Sahakian, B., Owen, A., & Marks, I. (1996). Specific cognitive deficits in tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychological Medicine, 26, 1261–1269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vythilingam, M., Anderson, E. R., Goddard, A., Woods, S. W., Staib, L. W., Charney, D. S., et al. (2000). Temporal lobe volume in panic disorder–a quantitative mangetic resonance imaging study. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 99, 75–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence (WASI) manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  90. Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler intelligence scale for children–fourth edition. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  91. Wilson, B. A., Cockburn, J., & Baddeley, A. (1985). The rivermead behavioural memory test. Bury St. Edmunds: Thames Valley Test Company.Google Scholar
  92. Woolley, J., Heyman, I., Brammer, M., Frampton, I., McGuire, P. K., & Rubia, K. (2008). Brain activation in paediatric obsessive compulsive disorder during tasks of inhibitory control. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 192, 25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Woon, F. L., & Hedges, D. W. (2008). Hippocampal and amygdala volumes in children and adults with childhood maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis. Hippocampus, 18, 729–736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yang, P., Wu, M. T., Hsu, C. C., & Ker, J. H. (2004). Evidence of early neurobiological alternations in adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder: A functional MRI study. Neuroscience Letters, 370, 13–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yasik, A. E., Saigh, P. A., Oberfield, R. A., & Halamandaris, P. V. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Memory and learning performance in children and adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 382–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Larson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mikle South
  • Tricia Merkley
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeuroscienceBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA

Personalised recommendations