8 Imaging of Brain Cancer

  • Soonmee Cha

Key Points

Brain imaging is necessary for optimal localization, characterization, and management of brain cancer prior to surgery in patients with suspected or confirmed brain tumors (strong evidence). Due to its superior soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability and biosafety, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with and without gadolinium-based intravenous contrast material is the preferred method for brain cancer imaging when compared to computed tomography (moderate evidence). No adequate data exist on the role of imaging in monitoring brain cancer response to therapy and differentiating between tumor recurrence and therapy related changes (insufficient evidence). No adequate data exist on the role of nonanatomic, physiology-based imaging, such as proton MR spectroscopy, perfusion and diffusion MRI, and nuclear medicine imaging (SPECT and PET) in monitoring treatment response or in predicting prognosis and outcome in patients with brain cancer (insufficient evidence). Human studies conducted on the use of Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for brain tumors demonstrate that this noninvasive method is technically feasible and suggest potential benefits for some of the proposed indications. However, there is a paucity of high quality direct evidence demonstrating the impact on diagnostic thinking and therapeutic decision making. There is added value of fMRI in the surgical planning of patients with suspected brain cancer or focal brain lesion (moderate evidence).


Positron Emission Tomography Single Photon Emission Compute Tomography Brain Metastasis Brain Cancer Radiation Necrosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Burger PC, Vogel FS. In Burger PC, Vogel FS (eds.): Surgical Pathology of the Central Nervous System and Its Coverings. New York: Wiley, 1982;223–266.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burger PC et al. Cancer 1985;56:1106–1111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kleihues P, Sobin LH. Cancer 2000;88(12):2887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kleihues P, Ohgaki H. Toxicol Pathol 2000;28(1): 164–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Go KG. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 1997;23:47–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sato S et al. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1994;60: 116–118.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stewart PA et al. J Neurosurg 1987;67(5): 697–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stewart PA et al. Microvasc Res 1987;33(2): 270–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abbott NJ et al. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1999;37 (1–3):253–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    DeAngelis LM. N Engl J Med 2001;344(2): 114–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Longstreth WT Jr et al. Cancer 1993;72(3): 639–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    CBTRUS. Statistical Report: Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, 1998–2002. Chicago, IL: Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, 2005.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Becker LE. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 1999;9(4): 671–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rickert CH, Probst-Cousin S, Gullotta F. Childs Nerv Syst 1997;13(10):507–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pollack IF. Semin Surg Oncol 1999;16(2):73–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Latif AZ et al. Br J Neurosurg 1998;12(2): 118–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ricci PE. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 1999;9(4): 651–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cha S et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001;22(6): 1109–1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kepes JJ. Ann Neurol 1993;33(1):18–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    De Stefano N et al. Ann Neurol 1998;44(2): 273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Porter RJ et al. Br J Psychiatry 2003;182:214–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meyers CA. Oncology (Hunting) 2000;14(1): 75–9;discussion 79,81–2,85.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Newton HB et al. Ann Pharmacother 1999;33 (7–8):816–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Salcman M. In Wilkins R, Rengachary S (eds.): Neurosurgery. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985; 579–590.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Snyder H et al. J Emerg Med 1993;11(3):253–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Miltenburg D, Louw DF, Sutherland GR. Can J Neurol Sci, 1996;23(2):118–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Davis FG, McCarthy BJ. Curr Opin Neurol 2000;13(6):635–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Medina LS et al. Radiology 1997;202(3):819–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Medina LS, Kuntz KM, Pomeroy S. Pediatrics 2001;108(2):255–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Whelan HT et al. Pediatr Neurol 1988;4(5): 279–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Benard F, Romsa J, Hustinx R. Semin Nucl Med 2003;33(2):148–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kovanlikaya A et al. Eur J Radiol 2003;47(3): 188–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hutter A et al. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2003;13(2):237–250,x–xi.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Walker AE, Robins M, Weinfeld FD. Neurology 1985;35(2):219–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wingo PA, Tong T, Bolden S. CA Cancer J Clin 1995;45:8–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Patchell RA. Neurol Clin 1991;9:817–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Davis PC et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1991;12(2): 293–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Golfieri R et al. Radiol Med (Torino) 1991; 82(1–2):27–34.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sze G et al. Radiology 1988;168(1):187–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kuhn MJ et al. Comput Med Imaging Graph 1994; 18(5):391–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yuh WT et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1995; 16(2):373–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sze G et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998; 19(5):821–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Morgenstern LB, Frankowski RF. J Neurooncol 1999;44(1):47–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Barcikowska M et al. Folia Neuropathol 1995; 33(1):55–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kim YJ et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1998;171(6): 1487–1490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zagzag D et al. Am J Surg Pathol 1993;17(6): 537–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Itto H et al. No To Shinkei 1972;24(4):455–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Babu R et al. J Neurooncol 1993;17(1):37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dagher AP, Smirniotopoulos J. Neuroradiology 1996;38(6):560–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Giang DW et al. Neuroradiology 1992;34(2): 150–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kurihara N et al. Clin Imaging 1996;20(3): 171–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Prockop LD, Heinz ER. Arch Neurol 1965;13(5): 559–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schaefer PW, Grant PE, Gonzalez RG. Radiology 2000;217(2):331–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cha S et al. Radiology 2002;223(1):11–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chang SC et al. Clin Imaging 2002;26(4): 227–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Castillo M, Mukherji SK. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2000;21(6):405–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ebisu T et al. Magn Reson Imaging 1996;14(9):1113–1116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Laing AD, Mitchell PJ, Wallace D. Australas Radiol 1999;43(1):16–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tsuruda JS et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1990;11(5):925–931;discussion 932–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Okamoto K et al. Eur Radiol 2000;10(8): 1342–1350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hollingworth W et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2006;27:1404–1411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Technology Evaluation Center. TEC Bull (Online) 2003;20(1):23–26.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Adamson AJ et al. Radiology 1998;209(1):73–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rand SD et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1997;18(9):1695–1704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shukla-Dave A. et al. Magn Reson Imaging 2001;19(1):103–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kimura T et al. NMR Biomed 2001;14(6):339–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wilken B et al. Pediatr Neurol 2000;23(1):22–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lin A, Bluml S, Mamelak AN. J Neurooncol 1999;45(1):69–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Taylor JS et al. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996;36(5):1251–1261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chao ST et al. Int J Cancer 2001;96:191–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Khan D et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1994;163: 1459–1465.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Medina LS et al. Radiology 2005;236:247–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Colice GL et al. Chest 1995;108(5):1264–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology and Biomedical ImagingUniversity of California San Francisco Medical CenterSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations