Electromagnetism and Joule Heating



Joule heating was one of the first non-equilibrium processes studied as thermodynamics developed in the first half of the nineteen century. The Carnot caloric theory that heat is a substance dominated thought in 1850, but Joule argued that heat is vibration and so is a dynamic process. Joule described the heating effect of a current in a copper wire conductor immersed in water as showing that for a fixed current the quantity of “heat evolved in a given time is proportional to the resistance multiplied by the square of the electric intensity” (Joule, 1841).


Joule Heating Poynting Vector Thomson Effect Maximum Dissipation Onsager Relation 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

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