Challenges to Intestinal pO2 Measurement Using EPR

  • Elaine FisherEmail author
  • Mahmood Khan
  • Richard Steiner
  • Periannan Kuppusamy
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 701)


Acute and chronic intestinal ischemia has been linked to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, bowel dysfunction and more seriously, the complications of sepsis, shock and death. Advances in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry have resulted in accurate and reliable in vivo measurement of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in solid organs (e.g., muscle, heart) [1], but has yet to be tested in thin walled organs such as intestine. Our ultimate goal is to noninvasively monitor intestinal pO2 during acute and chronic intestinal ischemia in a rat model. A series of experiments to deliver oxygen-sensitive indicator probes to the small/large intestine by intravenous, luminal and wall injection, as well as direct placement of a solid probe against the outer intestinal wall were attempted. Only the LiNc:BuO:PDMS chip sutured to the peritoneal wall and in direct contact with the intestine allowed for noninvasive pO2 measurement by EPR. However, the validity of site-specific intestinal pO2 measurement could not be confirmed and the obtained pO2 value likely reflected peritoneal cavity oxygenation. Developing methods for probe placement on or inside the intestinal wall are needed for noninvasive, site-specific intestinal pO2 measurement by EPR to track changes during acute and chronic intestinal ischemia.


Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectrum Superior Mesenteric Artery Intestinal Wall Bowel Dysfunction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Khan, M., Kutala, V.K., Wisel, S. et al (2008) Measurement of oxygenation at the site of stem cell therapy in a murine model of myocardial infarction. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 614, 45-52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kulkarni, A.C., Kuppusamy, P. and Parinandi, N. (2007) Oxygen, the lead actor in the pathophysiologic drama: enactment of the trinity of normoxia, hypoxia, and hyperoxia in disease and therapy. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 9, 1717-1730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Meenakshisundaram,G., Eteshola,E., Pandian,R.P., et al (2009) Fabrication and physical evaluation of a polymer-encapsulated paramagnetic probe for biomedical oximetry. Biomed.Microdevices. 11,773-782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meenakshisundaram,G., Eteshola,E., Pandian,R.P. et al (2009) Oxygen sensitivity and biocompatibility of an implantable paramagnetic probe for repeated measurements of tissue oxygenation. Biomed.Microdevices. 11, 817-826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Niebauer,J., Volk,H.D., Kemp,M. et al (1999) Endotoxin and immune activation in chronic heartfailure: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 353, 1838-1842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pandian,R.P., Parinandi,N.L., Ilangovan,G., et al (2003) Novel particulate spin probe for targeted determination of oxygen in cells and tissues. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 35, 1138-1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sandek,A., Bauditz,J., Swidsinski,A. et al (2007) Altered intestinal function in patients with chronic heart failure. J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 50, 1561-1569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine Fisher
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mahmood Khan
    • 2
  • Richard Steiner
    • 1
  • Periannan Kuppusamy
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Nursing & Dept. of StatisticsThe University of AkronAkronUSA
  2. 2.Center for Biomedical EPR Spectroscopy and Imaging, Davis Heart and Lung Research InstituteThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations