Total Diet Studies in Japan
The Japanese Government has conducted total diet studies (TDSs) annually since 1977, based on GEMS/Food Programme recommendations, to estimate average Japanese dietary exposure to various pesticides, heavy metals, dioxins, food additives, and other potentially hazardous chemicals. The concentrations of the chemicals in food composite samples comprised of 14 food categories and food frequency consumption data of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) were used for exposure assessments. In addition, exposure assessment of cadmium was specially fulfilled for risk management purposes in 2006. Approximately 3,600 surveillance data of cadmium concentrations in food items and NNS were applied for probabilistic intake assessment by Monte Carlo simulation.
KeywordsFood Group Cadmium Concentration Arsenic Exposure Cadmium Exposure Arsenic Trioxide
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