Total Diet Studies in Japan

  • Fujio Kayama
  • Hiroshi Nitta
  • Satoshi Nakai
  • Satoshi Sasaki
  • Hyogo Horiguchi


The Japanese Government has conducted total diet studies (TDSs) annually since 1977, based on GEMS/Food Programme recommendations, to estimate average Japanese dietary exposure to various pesticides, heavy metals, dioxins, food additives, and other potentially hazardous chemicals. The concentrations of the chemicals in food composite samples comprised of 14 food categories and food frequency consumption data of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) were used for exposure assessments. In addition, exposure assessment of cadmium was specially fulfilled for risk management purposes in 2006. Approximately 3,600 surveillance data of cadmium concentrations in food items and NNS were applied for probabilistic intake assessment by Monte Carlo simulation.


Food Group Cadmium Concentration Arsenic Exposure Cadmium Exposure Arsenic Trioxide 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fujio Kayama
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Nitta
    • 2
  • Satoshi Nakai
    • 3
  • Satoshi Sasaki
    • 4
  • Hyogo Horiguchi
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Preventive MedicineJichi Medical UniversityShimotsukeJapan
  2. 2.Center for Environmental Health SciencesNational Institute of Environmental StudiesTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Environment and Information SciencesYokohama National UniversityHodogaya-kuJapan
  4. 4.School of Public HealthUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Department of Environmental Health SciencesAkita University, Graduate School of MedicineAkitaJapan

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