Neurological Complications of Hodgkin Lymphoma

Chapter

Abstract

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a cancer of the immune system that is typically characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. Approximately 30% of all lymphomas are of Hodgkin type. Classical HL is the most common presentation (95% of all cases) and can be divided into four subtypes: lymphocyte predominance, nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, and lymphocyte depletion.

Keywords

Lymphoma Meningitis Hydrocephalus Etoposide Encephalitis 

Notes

Acknowledgment

MMM would like to thank Dr. Lawrence Recht for guidance during writing of the original version of this chapter for the first edition of Lymphoma of the Nervous System.

References

  1. 1.
    Jaffe ES, Lee Harris N, Stein H, Vardiman J (eds) (2001) Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues: pathology and genetics. WHO Classification of Tumours. IARC Press, LyonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tierney L, McPhee S, Papadakis M (eds) (1997) Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment, 36th edn. Appleton & Lange, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murchison C (1870) Case of “lymphadenoma” of the lymphatic system, spleen, liver, lungs, heart, diaphragm, dura mater. Trans Pathol Soc Lond 21:372–389Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abate G, Corazzelli G, Ciarmiello A, Monfardini S (1997) Neurologic complications of Hodgkin’s disease: a case history. Ann Oncol 8:593–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sapozink MD, Kaplan HS (1983) Intracranial Hodgkin’s disease. A report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Cancer 52:1301–1307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Re D, Fuchs M, Schober T et al (2007) CNS Involvement in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 25:3181Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hirmiz K, Foyle A, Wilke D et al (2004) Intracranial presentation of systemic Hodgkin’s disease. Leuk Lymphoma 45:1667–1671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McFadzean RM, McIlwaine GG, McLellan D (1990) Hodgkin’s disease at the optic chiasm. J Clin Neuroophthalmol 10:248–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sparling H, Adams R (1946) Primary Hodgkin’s sarcoma of the brain. Arch Pathol 42:338–344Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schircker J, Smith D (1955) Primary intracerebral Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer 8:629–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burstein SD, Kernohan JW, Uihlein A (1963) Neoplasms of the reticuloendothelial system of the brain. Cancer 16:289–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cambier J, Boivin P, Girauld A et al (1973) Cerebral lesions in Hodgkin’s disease. Ann Med Interne (Paris) 124:65–74Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cuttner J, Meyer R, Huang Y (1979) Intracerebral involvement in Hodgkin’s disease: a report of 6 cases and review of the literature. Cancer 43:1497–1506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gerstner ER, Abrey LE, Schiff D et al (2008) CNS Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 112:1658–1661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biagi J, MacKenzie RG, Lim MS et al (2000) Primary Hodgkin’s disease of the CNS in an immunocompetent patient: a case study and review of the literature. Neurooncol 2:239–243Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bender BL, Mayernik DG (1986) Hodgkin’s disease presenting with isolated craniospinal involvement. Cancer 58(8):1745–1748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herrlinger U, Klingel K, Meyermann R et al (2000) Central nervous system Hodgkin’s lymphoma without systemic manifestation: case report and review of the literature. Acta Neuropathol 99:709–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    De Bruin ML, Dorresteijn LD, van’t Veer MB et al (2009) Increased risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack in 5-year survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 101:928–937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Klein R, Mullges W, Bendszus M et al (1999) Primary intracerebral Hodgkin’s disease: report of a case with Epstein-Barr virus association and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 23:477–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alexander FE, Jarrett RF, Lawrence D et al (2000) Risk factors for Hodgkin’s disease by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status: prior infection by EBV and other agents. Br J Cancer 82:1117–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Akyuz C, Yalcin B, Atahan IL et al (2005) Intracranial involvement in Hodgkin’s disease. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 22:589–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Antonio G, Dahlstrom J, Chandran KN, O’Neil R (2000) Cerebellopontine angle Hodgkin’s disease. Australas Radiol 44:115–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nakayama H, Tokuuye K, Kagami Y et al (2000) Brain involvement in Hodgkin’s disease: case reports and review of the literature. Radiat Med 18:205–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kalinka E, Robak T, Wrzesien-Kus A et al (2002) Diagnostic and therapeutic quandaries in primary manifestation of Hodgkin’s disease in the central nervous system. Ann Hematol 81:289–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    King DP, Richardson JS (1950) Hodgkin’s disease of the cerebellum. St Thomas Hosp Rep 6:273–275Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lascelles RG, Burston J (1962) Hodgkin’s disease presenting with symptoms of cranial nerve involvement. Arch Neurol 7:359–364Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Litvak J, Leder MM, Kauvar AJ (1964) Hodgkin’s disease involving optic nerve and brain. J Neurosurg 21:798–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fratkin JD, Shammas HF, Miller SD (1978) Disseminated Hodgkin’s disease with bilateral orbital involvement. Arch Ophthalmol 96:102–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sahjupaul R, Elisevich K, Allen L (1996) Hodgkin’s disease of the orbit with intracranial extension. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 27:239–242Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kasner SE, Galetta SL, Vaughn DJ (1996) Cavernous sinus syndrome in Hodgkin’s disease. J Neuroophthalmol 16:204–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Turner ML, Boland OM, Parker AC, Ewing DJ (1993) Subclinical autonomic dysfunction in patients with Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Br J Haematol 84:623–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Citow JS, Rini B, Wollmann R, Macdonald RL (2001) Isolated, primary extranodal Hodgkin’s disease of the spine: case report. Neurosurgery 49:453–456; discussion 6–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Higgins SA, Peschel RE (1995) Hodgkin’s disease with spinal cord compression. A case report and a review of the literature. Cancer 75:94–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Friedman N, Kim T, Panahon A (1976) Spinal cord compression in malignant lymphoma: treatment and results. Cancer 37:1485–1491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Orlowski EP, Hansen RM, Anderson T et al (1984) Hodgkin’s disease with leptomeningeal involvement. Report of a case with long survival. Cancer 53:1833–1835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dillman R, Mueh J, Greco C, Green M (1980) Leptomeningeal Hodgkin’s disease. Ann Intern Med 92:714–715Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rabhi M, Ennibi K, Chaari J, Toloune F (2007) Hodgkin’s disease presenting with spinal cord compression. Rev Neurol (Paris) 163:1109–1112Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Recht L (1995) Neurological complications of lymphoma. In: Wiley R (ed) Neurological Complications of Cancer. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, pp 465–87Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cervantes F, Montserrat E, Rozman C (1979) Eosinophilic meningitis in Hodgkin’s disease. Ann Intern Med 91:930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Patchell R, Perry MC (1981) Eosinophilic meningitis in Hodgkin disease. Neurology 31:887–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lokich J, Galbo C (1981) Leptomeningeal lymphoma: perspectives on management. Cancer Treat Rev 8:103–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bunn PA Jr, Schein PS, Banks PM, DeVita VT Jr (1976) Central nervous system complications in patients with diffuse histiocytic and undifferentiated lymphoma: leukemia revisited. Blood 47:3–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cravioto H, Feigin I (1959) Noninfectious granulomatous angiitis with a predilection for the nervous system. Neurology 9:599–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yuen RW, Johnson PC (1996) Primary angiitis of the central nervous system associated with Hodgkin’s disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med 120:573–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rosen CL, DePalma L, Morita A (2000) Primary angiitis of the central nervous system as a first presentation in Hodgkin’s disease: a case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery 46:1504–1508; discussion 8–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Inwards DJ, Piepgras DG, Lie JT et al (1991) Granulomatous angiitis of the spinal cord associated with Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer 68:1318–1322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yoong MF, Blumbergs PC, North JB (1993) Primary (granulomatous) angiitis of the central nervous system with multiple aneurysms of spinal arteries. Case report. J Neurosurg 79:603–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Roggerone S, Traverse-Glehen A, Derex L et al (2008) Recurrent cerebral venous thrombosis revealing paraneoplastic angiitis in Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Neurooncol 89:195–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Volmer T, Guarnaccia J, Harrington W et al (1993) Idiopathic granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system: diagnositic challenges. Arch Neurol 50:925–930Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Calabrese LH, Furlan AJ, Gragg LA, Ropos TJ (1992) Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: diagnostic criteria and clinical approach. Cleve Clin J Med 59:293–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Portegies P, Algra PR, Hollak CE et al (1991) Response to cytarabine in progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in AIDS. Lancet 337:680–1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Steiger MJ, Tarnesby G, Gabe S et al (1993) Successful outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with cytarabine and interferon. Ann Neurol 33:407–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shet AS, Saba N, Rausch D, Belzer M (2004) Intra-cranial lesions in a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma 45:419–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mazur MH, Dolin R (1978) Herpes zoster at the NIH: a 20 year experience. Am J Med 65:738–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Correale J, Monteverde DA, Bueri JA, Reich EG (1991) Peripheral nervous system and spinal cord involvement in lymphoma. Acta Neurol Scand 83:45–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Guerreiro CA, Guerreiro MM (1984) Ocular herpes zoster and delayed cerebrovascular accident: report of a case. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 42:402–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vickers SM, Niederhuber JE (1997) Hodgkin’s disease associated with neurologic paraneoplastic syndrome. South Med J 90:839–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cipriani D, Landonio G, Canepari C (1989) A case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome in a patient affected by Hodgkin’s disease. J Neurol 236:303–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Arasaki K, Kwee IL, Nakada T (1987) Limbic lymphoma. Neuroradiology 29:389–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Deodhare S, O’Connor P, Ghazarian D, Bilbao JM (1996) Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis in Hodgkin’s disease. Can J Neurol Sci 23:138–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Grisold W, Drlicek M, Liszka-Setinek U, Wondrusch E (1995) Anti-tumour therapy in paraneoplastic neurological disease. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 97:106–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cehreli C, Payzin B, Undar B et al (1995) Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in association with Hodgkin’s disease: a report of two cases. Acta Haematol 94:210–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hammack J, Kotanides H, Rosenblum MK, Posner JB (1992) Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. II. Clinical and immunologic findings in 21 patients with Hodgkin’s disease. Neurology 42:1938–1943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cavo M, Zaccaria A, d’Alessandro R et al (1984) Hodgkin’s disease and subacute cerebellar degeneration. A case report and review of the literature. Nouv Rev Fr Hematol 26:197–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Graus F, Dalmau J, Valldeoriola F et al (1997) Immunological characterization of a neuronal antibody (anti-Tr) associated with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and Hodgkin’s disease. J Neuroimmunol 74:55–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Graus F, Gultekin SH, Ferrer I et al (1998) Localization of the neuronal antigen recognized by anti-Tr antibodies from patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and Hodgkin’s disease in the rat nervous system. Acta Neuropathol 96:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Arkenau HT, Gordon C, Murphy F, Cunningham D (2007) Paraneoplastic syndrome: subacute cerebellar degeneration in Hodgkin’s disease. Leuk Lymphoma 48:819–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ypma PF, Wijermans PW, Koppen H, Sillevis Smitt PA (2006) Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration preceding the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Neth J Med 64:243–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Batchelor TT, Platten M, Palmer-Toy DE et al (1998) Chorea as a paraneoplastic complication of Hodgkin’s disease. J Neurooncol 36:185–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dansey RD, Hammond-Tooke GD, Lai K, Bezwoda WR (1988) Subacute myelopathy: an unusual paraneoplastic complication of Hodgkin’s disease. Med Pediatr Oncol 16:284–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lahrmann H, Albrecht G, Drlicek M et al (2001) Acquired neuromyotonia and peripheral neuropathy in a patient with Hodgkin’s disease. Muscle Nerve 24:834–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Caress JB, Abend WK, Preston DC, Logigian EL (1997) A case of Hodgkin’s lymphoma producing neuromyotonia. Neurology 49:258–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dropcho EJ (1998) Neurologic paraneoplastic syndromes. J Neurol Sci 153:264–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    O’Neill JH, Murray NM, Newsom-Davis J (1988) The Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. A review of 50 cases. Brain 111(Pt 3):577–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Grimaldi LM, Martino G, Braghi S et al (1993) Heterogeneity of autoantibodies in stiff-man syndrome. Ann Neurol 34:57–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kay CL, Davies-Jones GA, Singal R, Winfield DA (1993) Paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus in Hodgkin’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 56:831–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Carr I (1982) The Ophelia syndrome: memory loss in Hodgkin’s disease. Lancet 1:844–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pfliegler G, Posan E, Glaub D et al (1990) Hodgkin’s disease and memory loss: another case of the Ophelia syndrome. Br J Haematol 74:232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Neurology and NeurosurgeryMedical School, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations