Spatial Structures of Site Characteristics and Composite Sampling

  • Ganapati P. PatilEmail author
  • Sharad D. Gore
  • Charles Taillie*
Part of the Environmental and Ecological Statistics book series (ENES, volume 4)


Environmental samples are most often collected at sites and therefore cannot be considered stochastically independent of one another. There is a common underlying contamination diffusion process that affects all samples, possibly in varying degrees. As a consequence, the samples collected at a particular site can be viewed as a realization of the corresponding spatial point process. It is then obvious that a statistical analysis of such data involves not only the overall population mean and variance but also parameters of the spatial process such as components of the variability of the process, spatial autocorrelation among sampling locations. In particular, the interest is in the trend, which corresponds to the expectation of the process, and spatial autocorrelation, which is usually characterized by the variogram, semivariogram, or covariogram. There is also an interest in identifying the components of variability, especially the scale of variability in comparison with the scale of sampling, which is measured in terms of the distance between successive sampling locations.


Mean Square Error Composite Sample Nugget Variance Resampled Point Retest Procedure 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ganapati P. Patil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sharad D. Gore
    • 2
  • Charles Taillie*
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Statistical Ecology and Environmental StatisticsPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of StatisticsUniversity of PunePuneIndia
  3. 3.Center for Statistical Ecology and Environmental StatisticsPenn State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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