We have focused upon disciplinary science, since disciplines are the primary organizations of scientific communities. But not all research is disciplinary in boundary. When science is connected to technology, then research often crosses disciplinary boundaries, becoming interdisciplinary research or multidisciplinary research. The reason for this is that disciplines are intellectual boundaries but not nature’s boundary. Also, technologies have more than one science base and the need by industry for simultaneous progress in both science and technology, cutting-edge research now is often multidisciplinary. Multidisciplinary research involves researchers from different disciplines working together in multidisciplinary research centers.