Color and Appearance

  • Harry T. Lawless
  • Hildegarde Heymann
Part of the Food science text series book series (FSTS)

Abstract

In food products, especially meats, fruits, and vegetables, the consumer often assesses the initial quality of the product by its color and appearance. The appearance and color of these products are thus the primary indicators of perceived quality. The importance of color and appearance can also be demonstrated when we think of drinking milk from a Coca-Cola bottle, when we choose bananas in the grocery store (a green-yellow-black continuum that indicates ripeness), when a friend serves green-colored bread and beer on St Patrick’s day, and when someone serves us a watermelon with yellow flesh instead of the more usual red. In food processing and cooking, color serves as a cue for the doneness of foods and is correlated with changes in aroma and flavor. Simple examples include the browning of baked and fried foods. For other foods, color or lightness is important to identity and grading, such as the lightness of canned tuna fish. Scientific studies have also shown that the color of the product affects our perception of other attributes, such as aroma, taste, and flavor. For example, DuBose and Cardello et al. (1980) found that the number of correct identifications of fruit-flavored beverage flavors decreased significantly when the beverage was atypically colored, and that the number of correct identifications increased when the beverages was colored correctly. Christensen (1983) found that when sighted panelists scored the aroma intensity of appropriately and inappropriately colored cheese, soy analog bacon, margarine, raspberry-flavored gelatin, and orange drink, the perceived intensity of the appropriately colored product was higher than for the inappropriately colored product. Interestingly, the bacon analog was a notable exception.

Keywords

Sugar Sucrose Depression Tungsten Retina 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ASTM. 1982. Committee Dl. Standard practice for visual evaluation of color differences of opaque materials. ASTM D, 1684–1684.Google Scholar
  2. ASTM. 1991. Standard test method for computing the colors of objects using the CIE system. E 308–90. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 14, 244–270.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, J., and Prazdny, S. 1981. Highlights and the perception of glossiness. Perception and Psychophysics, 30, 407–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carrasco, A. 1997. Human visual perception of haze and relationships with instrumental measurements of turbidity. Effects of polyphenol adsorbents and fining agents in grape juice and wine. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  5. Christensen, C.M., 1983. Effect of color on aroma, flavor and texture judgements of foods. Journal of Food Science, 48, 787–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christensen, C.M., 1985. Effect of color on judgements of food aroma and flavor intensity in young and elderly adults. Perception, 14, 755–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. CIE. 1978. Recommendations on uniform color spaces, color difference equations, psychometric color terms. Supplement No. 2 to CIE Publication No. 15 (E-1.3.1) 1971/(TC-1.3). Bureau Central de la CIE, 52 Boulevard Malesherbes 75008, Paris, France (CIE Central Bureau now located at 27 Kegel Strasse, A-1030 Vienna, Austria).Google Scholar
  8. CIE. 1986. Colorimetry,2d ed. CIE Publication No. 15.2. CIE Central Bureau, 27 Kegel Strasse, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  9. CIE. 1995a. Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources. CIE Publication No. 13.3. CIE Central Bureau, 27 Kegel Strasse, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  10. CIE. 1995b. Industrial colour-difference evaluation CIE Publication No. 116. CIE Central Bureau, 27 Kegel Strasse, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  11. Clydesdale, F.M. 1978. Colorimetry: Methodology and Applications. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 243–301.Google Scholar
  12. Clydesdale, F.M. 1975. Food Colorimetry: Theory and Applications. AVI Publishing, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  13. DuBose, C.N., Cardello, A.V., and Maller, O. (1980). Effects of colorants and flavo-rants on identification, perceived flavor intensity and hedonic quality of fruit-flavored beverages and cake. Journal of Food Science, 45, 1393–1399, 1415.Google Scholar
  14. Glenn, J.J., and Killian, J.T. 1940. Trichromatic analysis of the Munsell book of color. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 30, 609–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hard, A., and Sivik, L. 1981. NCS—natural color system: a Swedish standard for color notation. Color Research and Application, 6, 129–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hough, J.S., Briggs, E.D., Stevens, R., and Young, T.W. 1982. Malting and Brewing Science. Chapman and Hall, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hutchings, J.B. 1994. Food Colour and Appearance. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, p. 35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson, J., and Clydesdale, F.M. (1982) Perceived sweetness and redness in colored sucrose solutions. Journal of Food Science, 47, 747–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leedham, P.A., and Carpenter, P.M. 1977. Particle size measurement and the control of beer clarity. Proceedings European Brewery Convention 16th Congress. European Brewery Convention, London, pp. 729–744.Google Scholar
  20. MacKinney, G., and Little, A.C. 1962. Color of Foods. Avi Publishers, Westport, CT. Maga, J.A. 1974. Influence of color on taste thresholds. Chemical Senses and Flavor, 1, 115–119Google Scholar
  21. Malcolmson, L., Jeffrey, L., Sharma, D.D., and Ng, P.K.W. 1989. Relationship between sensory clarity and turbidity values of apple juice. Canadian Institute of Science and Technology Journal, 22, 129–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. MacAdam, D.L. 1942. Visual sensitivities to color differences in daylight. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 32, 247–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Merbs, S.L., and Nathans, J. 1993. Role of hydroxyl-bearing amino acids in differently tuning the absorption spectra of the human red and green cone pigments. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 58, 706–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Merbs, S.L., and Nathans, J. 1992. Absorption spectra of human cone pigments. Nature (London), 356, 433–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pangborn, R.M. 1982. Influence of water composition, extraction procedures and holding time and temperature on quality of coffee beverage. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft and Technologie, 15, 161–168.Google Scholar
  26. Pattee, H.E., Giesbrecht, F.G., and Young, C.T. 1991. Comparison of peanut butter color determination by CIELAB L*a*b* and Hunter color-difference methods and the relationship of roasted peanut color to roasted peanut flavor response. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 39, 519–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pieczonka, W.C.E. 1974. Nephelometric method for clarity assessment of beverage apple juice. Przemysl Spozywczy, 28, 121–124.Google Scholar
  28. Setser, C.S. 1984. Color: reflections and transmissions. Journal of Food Quality, 42, 128–135.Google Scholar
  29. Siebert, K., Carrasco, A., and Lynn, P.Y. 1996. The mechanism of protein-polyphenol haze formation in beverages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44, 1997–2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thai, C.N., and Shewfelt, R.L. 1991. Modeling sensory color quality of tomato and peach: neural networks and statistical regression. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 34, 950–955.Google Scholar
  31. Venkatasubramanian, K., Saini, R., and Vieth, W.R. 1975. Immobilization of papain on collagen and the use of collagen-papain membranes in beer chill-proofing. Journal of Food Science, 40, 109–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry T. Lawless
    • 1
  • Hildegarde Heymann
    • 2
  1. 1.Cornell UniversityUSA
  2. 2.University of MissouriUSA

Personalised recommendations