How Fathers Evolve: A Functional Analysis of Fathering Behavior

Chapter
Part of the National Symposium on Family Issues book series (NSFI)

Abstract

In mammals, paternal care is rarer and more variable in its proximate mechanisms of development and underlying neural mechanisms than is maternal care. Here, we discuss how species differences in these proximate mechanisms reflect ecological pressures that have been selected for biparental care and argue that paternal care is more fixed (i.e., shaped less by social experiences) in those species where it is most important for infant survival. A second theme is that glucocorticoids such as cortisol and corticosterone are associated with both positive (more responsive to infant cues, more domestic work) and negative aspects of parenting (find parenting more difficult) in human fathers, findings that mirror research on maternal behavior. Finally, we discuss an animal model with obligatory biparental care, a seabird, the common murre (Uria aalge) – and show, as in humans, that elevated corticosterone is associated with both positive and negative aspects of parental responses, depending on environmental (foraging) context. We conclude that biparental care contributes to flexibility in reproductive strategies that allow organisms to extend their seasonal or geographic breeding ranges.

Questions about parenting behavior can be examined from at least four different perspectives (as in Tinbergen, 1963). We share this view with Mileva and Fleming (see  Chap. 1), based in part on the common training that Fleming and Storey received from the Institute of Animal Behavior and have shared with students and colleagues. These four perspectives include studies of mechanism and development at the individual level, which has been Fleming’s focus, and studies of why and how the behavior evolved, which has been our emphasis. Studies of mechanism include all components discussed by Mileva and Fleming, including how sensory stimuli from the young initiate the hormonal and neural responses that trigger parental behavior. Mileva and Fleming’s overview of the mechanisms underlying maternal behavior covered the field beautifully, summarizing the seminal contributions of Fleming and her colleagues. In fact, the work by Fleming and colleagues in this area is so comprehensive that there are no gaps.

For this reason, we develop a comparison here with the much smaller literature on the other parent, the father. We are interested in evolutionary/functional questions such as why there are species and individual differences in fathers’ involvement in the care of offspring. We explore how selection for flexibility in the expression of paternal care under different social and environmental conditions has shaped its development and neural mechanisms. In connection with fathers, we develop two other themes from the Mileva and Fleming chapter: the role of glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone), hormones linked to both positive and negative aspects of parenting, and the use of an animal model to understand the ecological context in which biparental care evolves.

Keywords

Depression Estrogen Cortisol Testosterone Glucocorticoid 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

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