Effects of Underwater Noise on Larval settlement

  • Jenni A. Stanley
  • Craig A. Radford
  • Andrew G. Jeffs
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 730)


Many benthic marine organisms possess a pelagic larval phase that typically results in dispersal away from the parental habitat and ends in the larva selecting a suitable benthic habitat in which to settle (O’Connor and Gregg 1998). Settlement and metamorphosis often involve a specific cue or combination of chemical and/or physical cues (Gebauer et al. 2003). The larvae of many marine organisms are known to be capable of extending their larval phase, often for considerable periods, until suitable settlement cues or habitats are detected. Some larvae will spontaneously metamorphose or even die without metamorphosing in the absence of specific settlement cues (Gebauer et al. 2003; Pechenik 1990). Brachyuran crabs seem to lack the ability to delay metamorphosis indefinitely because they appear to have a temporal threshold beyond which settlement and metamorphosis occur even in the absence of settlement cues (Weber and Epifanio 1996).


Wind Turbine Wind Farm Larval Phase Offshore Wind Farm Underwater Sound 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jenni A. Stanley
    • 1
  • Craig A. Radford
    • 1
  • Andrew G. Jeffs
    • 1
  1. 1.Leigh Marine LaboratoryUniversity of AucklandWarkworthNew Zealand

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