Behavioral-Response Studies: Problems With Statistical Power

  • Rebecca A. Dunlop
  • Michael J. Noad
  • Douglas H. Cato
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 730)


The behavioral-response study (BRS) is an experimental design used by field biologists to determine the function and/or behavioral effects of conspecific, heterospecific, or anthropogenic stimuli. Although this has been used for many years in studies of acoustic stimuli and whales, many of these studies have been limited by lack of true replication, otherwise known as “pseudoreplication” (Hurlbert 1984; Kroodsma 1989; Searcy 1989).


Acoustic Stimulus Adequate Sample Size Playback Experiment Logistical Difficulty True Replication 
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This work was supported by the US Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA; the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Canberra, ACT, Australia; the Australian Marine Mammal Centre, Hobart, TAS, Australia; and the Exploration and Production Sound and Marine Life Joint Industry Programme, International Association of Oil and Gas Producers, London, UK.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca A. Dunlop
    • 1
  • Michael J. Noad
    • 1
  • Douglas H. Cato
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Cetacean Ecology and Acoustics LaboratorySchool of Veterinary ScienceGattonAustralia
  2. 2.University of Sydney Institute of Marine Science, University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Defence Science and Technology OrganisationPyrmontAustralia

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