Workshop Three: Approaches to Behavioral Analysis of Responses to High-Energy Acoustic Sources
The behavioral effects of high-energy acoustic sources such as pile driving, seismic surveys, explosions, and sonar on marine mammals and fish have received increasing attention by scientists, policy makers, and stakeholders. In both mammals and fish, behavioral responses can potentially occur at relatively low levels of noise exposure and, therefore, impact zones can be quite large. These responses may prevent marine mammals and fish from reaching breeding or spawning sites, finding food, and acoustically locating mates. Any of these effects could lead to potential long-term effects on reproduction and population parameters. In the case of fish, avoidance reactions can also result in displacement away from potential fishing grounds and might result in reduced catches. Studies have been undertaken using a variety of methodologies ranging from purely qualitative observations to controlled laboratory experiments.