Regulatory Assessments of the Effects of Noise: Moving From Threshold Shift and Injury to Behavior
The United States Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (MMPA) give the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) a mandate and the authority to protect numerous species of marine mammals, sea turtles, marine and anadromous fish, mollusks, and coral from activities conducted by government agencies, corporations, academic institutions, and private individuals, including activities that introduce anthropogenic noise into freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. To satisfy its obligations under these two laws, NOAA assesses the effects of sound-producing activities using an exposure-response risk-assessment methodology that is designed to satisfy the protective mandates of these laws.
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