Cognitive Approaches

  • Donald K. Fromme


What is reality? Do events in the real world determine a person’s actions as behaviorists suggest? Or is it the perception of those events as suggested by Epictetus? This dialectic is apparent in the tension between cognitive therapy’s scientific modernist epistemology and its constructivist phenomenological assumptions about the ontology of change. On the one hand, cognitive therapists subscribe to objective empiricism, but on the other hand, they challenge the client’s belief systems in order to construct new phenomenal realities.


Coping Style Cognitive Therapy Irrational Belief Schema Therapy Cognitive Distortion 
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Further Reading


  1. Albert Ellis Institute. Website: www.rebt.orgGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research: www.beckinstitute.orgGoogle Scholar
  3. Schema Therapy Institute: www.schematherapy.comGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., & Beck, J. S. (2005). Cognitive therapy for challenging problems: What to do when the basics don’t work. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T., & Freeman, A. (1990) Cognitive therapy of personality disorders. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, A. T., Rush, A., Shaw, B., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Ellis, A. (1991). The revised ABCs of rational-emotive therapy. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 9, 139–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar


  1. American Psychological Association Systems of Psychotherapy Series (2007).Google Scholar
  2. • Cognitive Therapy with Judith BeckGoogle Scholar
  3. • Schema Therapy with Jeffrey Young Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Professional PsychologyPacific UniversityHillsboroUSA

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