Ginsenoside Variation Within and Between Ontario Ginseng Landraces: Relating Phytochemistry to Biological Activity
The variation in ginsenoside content in Ontario-grown North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) was evaluated within and between five Ontario ginseng landraces using HPLC-DAD. All ginsenosides, except Rg1, varied significantly between at least two landraces and total ginsenoside levels were reduced in one landrace. The greatest range in total ginsenosides observed within an individual landrace was 4.36–16.61% w/w. Anti-glycation and antioxidant activity of Ontario ginseng was also evaluated and assessed in relation to ginsenoside content and total phenolic content. Low inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation was observed. Radical scavenging activity was seen in the DPPH assay and this activity was correlated with both total ginsenoside and total phenolic content. This activity was low in comparison to previously tested phenolic-rich extracts. Identifying variation in ginsenoside profiles and this effect on biological activity could be important for quality control and landrace development.
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