Measuring the Citizen Effect: What Does Good Citizen Involvement Look Like?

  • Linda Stalker ProkopyEmail author
  • Kristin Floress


Measuring the quality of citizen participation in watershed projects provides a way to track and evaluate citizen involvement over time. Technical watershed specialists and citizen groups can use indicators of citizen participation to adapt their processes to achieve the kinds of citizen involvement most appropriate to the project phase as well provide accountable documentation to funding sources.


  1. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2008. Handbook for Developing Watershed Plans to Restore and Protect Our Waters. USEPA. Office of Water Nonpoint Source Control Branch. EPA 841-B-050005. Google Scholar
  2. Arnstein, S. R. 1969. A Ladder of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35(4):216–224. Google Scholar
  3. Moote, A., and Lowe, K. 2008. What to Expect from Collaboration in Natural Resource Management: A Research Synthesis for Practitioners. Flagstaff: Ecological Restoration Institute. Google Scholar
  4. Kaner, S. 2007. Facilitator’s Guide to Participatory Decision-Making. Second Edition. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Google Scholar
  5. McCool, S. F., and Guthrie, K. 2001. “Mapping the Dimensions of Successful Public Participation in Messy Natural Resources Management Situations.” Society and Natural Resources 14:309–323. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Natural ResourcesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations