Cardiovascular Risk in Subjects with Carotid Pathologies

  • Fulvio Orzan
  • Matteo Anselmino
  • Margherita Cannillo
Chapter

Abstract

Although atherosclerotic disease often becomes clinically evident only in one particular vascular distribution during a person’s lifespan, it is an ubiquitous process, that can be detected in all arteries, depending on the diagnostic test adopted and the threshold chosen. Disease of the carotid arteries is frequent and the present chapter will focus on the correlation of this pathology with coronary heart disease.

Keywords

Carotid disease Coronary heart disease Cardiovascular risk Intima-media thickness Cardiac events 

References

  1. 1.
    Adams RJ, Chimowitz MI, Alpert JS, Awad IA, Cerqueria MD, Fayad P, Taubert KA. Coronary risk evaluation in patients with transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke. A scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the Stroke Council and the Council on Clinical Cardiology of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Circulation 2003;108:1278–1290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berry JD, Liu K, Folsom AR, Lewis CE, Carr JJ, Polak JF, Shea S, Sidney S, O’Leary DH, Chan C, Lloyd-Jones DM. Prevalence and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in younger adults with low short-term but high lifetime estimated risk for cardiovascular disease: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Circulation 2009;119:382–389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Ohman EM, Hirsch AT, Ikeda Y, Mas J-L, Goto S, Liau C-S, Richard AJ, Roether J, Wilson PWF. International prevalence, recognition, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with atherothrombosis. JAMA 2006;295:180–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bots ML, Hoes AW, Koudstaal PJ, et al. Common carotid intima- media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction (The Rotterdam Study). Circulation 1997;96:1432–1437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brett AS. Coronary assessment before noncardiac surgery. Curent strategies are flawed. Circulation 2008;117:3145–3151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Burke GL, Evans GW, Riley WA, Sharrett AR, Howard G, Barnes RW, Rosamond W, Crow RS, Rautaharju PM, Heiss G. Arterial wall thickness is associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Stroke. 1995 Mar;26(3):386–91Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chaturvedi S. Should stroke be considered both a brain attack and a heart attack? Stroke 2007;38:1713–1714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chimowitz MI, Poole RM, Starling MR, Schwaiger M, Gross MD. Frequency and severity of asymptomatic coronary disease in patients with different causes of stroke. Stroke 1997;28:941–945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chimowitz MI, Weiss DG, Cohen SL, et al. Cardiac prognosis of patients with carotid stenosis and no history of coronary artery disease: Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 167. Stroke 1994;25:759–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dennis MS, Burn JP, Sandercock PA, Bamford JM, Wade DT, Warlow CP.Long-term survival after first-ever stroke: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. Stroke 1993;24:796–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Devereaux PJ, Goldman L, Yusuf S, Gilbert K, Leslie K, Guyatt GH. Surveillance and prevention of major perioperative ischemic cardiac events in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a review. CMAJ 2005;173:779–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dhamoon M, Tai W, Boden-Albala B, Runek T, Paik MC, Sacco RL, Elkind MSV. Risk of myocardial infarction or vascular death after first ischemic stroke: the Northern Manhattan study. Stroke 2007;38:1752–1758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Di Pasquale G, Pinelli G, Grazi P, et al. Incidence of silent myocardial ischaemia in patients with cerebral ischaemia. Eur Heart J 1988;9(suppl N):104–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Elgersma OE, van Leeuwen MS, Meijer R, Eikelboom BC, van der Graaf Y. Lumen reduction measurements of the internal carotid artery before and after Levovist enhancement: reproducibility and agreement with angiography. J Ultrasound Med 1999;18:191–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study. JAMA 1995;273:1421–1428Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fleisher LA, Beckman JA, Brown KA, Calkins H, Chaikoff E, Fleischmann KE, Freeman WK, Froelich JB, Kasper EK, Kersten JR, Riegel B, Robb JF. ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines on ­perioperative cardiac evaluation and care for noncardiac surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2007;116:1971–1996CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gates PC, Eliasziw M, Algra A, Barnett HJ, Gunton RW; North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Group. Identifying patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease at high and low risk of severe myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Stroke 2002;33:2413–2416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gates P, Peppard R, Kempster P, Harris A, Pierce M. Clinically unsuspected cardiac disease in patients with cerebral ischaemia. Clin Exp Neurol 1987;23:75–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Geroulakos G, O’Gorman DJ, Kalodiki E, et al. The carotid intima-media thickness as a marker of the presence of severe symptomatic coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 1994;15:781–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goldstein LB, Adams R, Alberts MJ, Appel LJ, Brass LM, Bushnell CD, Culebras A, DeGraba TJ, Gorelick PB, Guyton JR, Hart RG, Howard G, Kelly-Hayes M, Nixon JV, Sacco RL. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke. A guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism Council; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group: The American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline. Stroke 2006;37:1583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gongora-Rivera F, Labreuche J, Jaramillo A, Steg PG, Hauw JJ, Amarenco P. Autopsy prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with fatal stroke. Stroke 2007;38:1203–1210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goldstein LB, Adams R, Alberts MJ, Appel LJ, Brass LM, Bushnell CD, Culebras A, DeGraba TJ, Gorelick PB, Guyton JR, Hart RG, Howard G, Kelly-Hayes M, Nixon JV, Sacco RL. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism Council; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation 2006;113:e873–e923CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gregoratos G. Current guideline-based preoperative evaluation provides the best management of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Circulation 2008;117;3134–3144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Merz CN, Brewer HB Jr, Clark LT, Hunninghake DB, Pasternak RC, Smith SC Jr, Stone NJ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, American College of Cardiology Foundation, American Heart Association. Implications of recent clinical trials for the national cholesterol education program adult treatment panel III guidelines. Circulation 2004;110:227–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kafetzakis A, Kochiadakis G, Laliotis A, Peteinarakis I, Touloupakis E, Igoumenidis N, Katsamouris A. Association of subclinical wall changes of carotid, femoral, and popliteal arteries with obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Chest 2005;128:2538–2543CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kaplan RC, Tirschwell DL, Longstreth WT Jr, Manolio TA, Heckbert SR, Lefkowitz D, El-Saed A, Psaty BM. Vascular events, mortality, and preventive therapy following ischemic stroke in the elderly. Neurology 2005;65:835–842CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kazmers A, Cerqueira MD, Zierler RE. The role of preoperative radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction for risk assessment in carotid surgery. Arch Surg 1988;123:416–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kertai MD. Preoperative coronary revascularization in high-risk patients undergoing vascular surgery: a core review. Anesth Analg 2008;106:751–758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kragsterman B, Bjorck M, Lindback J, Bergqvist D, Parsson H. Long-term survival after carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis. Stroke 2006;37:2886–2891CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hertzer NR, Lees CD. Fatal myocardial infarction following carotid endarterectomy: three hundred thirty-five patients followed 6–11 years after operation. Ann Surg 1981;194:212–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hertzer R, Young JR, Beven EG, Graor RA, O’Hara PJ, Ruschhaupt WF, deWolfe VG, Maljovec LC. Coronary angiography in 506 patients with extracranial cerebrovascular disease. Arch Intern Med 1985;145:849–852CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Landesberg G, Wolf Y, Schechter D, Mosseri M, Weissman C, Anner H, Chisin R, Luria MH, Kovalski N, Bocher M, Erel J, Berlatzky Y. Preoperative thallium scanning, selective ­coronary revascularization, and long-term survival after carotid endarterectomy. Stroke 1998;29:2541–2548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee TH, Marcantonio ER, Mangione CM, Thomas Eric J, Polanczyk CA, Cook EF, Sugarbaker DJ, Donaldson MC, Poss R, Ho KKL, Ludwig LE, Pedan A, Goldman L. Derivation and prospective validation of a simple index for prediction of cardiac risk of major noncardiac surgery. Circulation 1999;100:1043–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lorenz MW, Markus HS, Bots ML, Rosvall M, Sitzer M. Prediction of clinical cardiovascular events with carotid intima-media thickness. Circulation 2007;115:459–467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Love BB, Grover-McKay M, Biller J, et al. Coronary artery disease and cardiac events with asymptomatic and symptomatic cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 1992;23:939–945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mathur KS, Kashyap SK, Kumar V. Correlation of the extent and severity of atherosclerosis in the coronary and cerebral arteries. Circulation 1963;27:929–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ness J, Aronow WS. Prevalence of coexistence of coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease in older persons, mean age 80 years, in an academic hospital-based geriatrics practice. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:1255–1256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    O’Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Kittner SJ, Bond MG, Wolfson SK, Bommer W, Price TR, Gardin JM, Savage PJ. Distribution and correlates of sonographically detected carotid artery disease in the cardiovascular health study. The CHS Collaborative Research Group. Stroke 1992;23:1752–1760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    O’Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Manolio TA, Burke GL, Wolfson SK. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. N Engl J Med 1999;340:14–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ombrellaro MP, Dieter RA III, Freeman M, Stevens SL, Goldman MH. Role of dipyridamole myocardial scintigraphy in carotid artery surgery. J Am Coll Surg 1995;181(5):451–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Paciaroni M, Eliasziw ML, Kappelle, LJ, et al. Medical complications associated with carotid endarterectomy. Stroke 1999;30:1759–1763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Prosser J, MacGregor L, Lees KR, Diener H-C, Hacke W, Davis S; VISTA Investigators. Predictors of early cardiac morbidity and mortality after ischemic stroke. Stroke 2007;38:2295–2302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rihal CS, Gersh BJ, Whisnant JP, Rooke TW, Sundt TM Jr, O’Fallon WM, Ballard DJ. Influence of coronary heart disease on morbidity and mortality after carotid endarterectomy: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota (1970–1988). J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;19:1254–1260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rokey R, Rolak LA, Harati Y, Kutka N, Verani MS. Coronary artery disease in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a prospective study. Ann Neurol 1984;16:50–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sacco RL, Wolf PA, Kannel WB, McNamara PM. Survival and recurrence following stroke: the Framingham Study. Stroke 1982;13:290–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sacco RL, Adams R, Albers G, Alberts MJ, Benavente O, Furie K, Goldstein LB, Gorelick P, Halperin J, Harbaugh R, Johnston SC, Katzan I, Kelly-Hayes M, Kenton EJ, Marks M, Schwamm LH, Tomsick T. Guidelines for prevention of stroke in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Council on Stroke: co-sponsored by the Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline. Stroke 2006;37:577–617CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schouten O, van Kuijk JP, Flu WJ, Winkel TA, Welten GM, Boersma E, Verhagen HJ, Bax JJ, Poldermans D; DECREASE Study Group. Long-term outcome of prophylactic coronary revascularization in cardiac high-risk patients undergoing major vascular surgery (from the randomized DECREASE-V Pilot Study). Am J Cardiol 2009;103:897–901CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shah AM, Banerjee T, Mukherjee D. Coronary, peripheral and cerebrovascular disease: a complex relationship. Herz 2008;33:475–480CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Seo WK, Yong HS, Koh SB, Suh SI, Kim JH, Yu SW, Lee JY. Correlation of coronary artery atherosclerosis with atherosclerosis of the intracranial cerebral artery and the extracranial carotid artery. Eur Neurol 2008;59(6):292–298CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stein JH, Korcarz CE, Hurst RT, Lonn E, Kendall CB, Mohler ER, Najjar SS, Rembold CM, Post WS; American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Task Force. Use of carotid ultrasound to identify subclinical vascular disease and evaluate ­cardiovascular disease risk: a consensus statement from the American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Task Force. Endorsed by the Society for Vascular Medicine. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008;21:93–111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Solberg LA, McGarry PA, Moossy J, Strong JP, Tejada C, Löken AC. Severity of atherosclerosis in cerebral arteries, coronary arteries, and aortas. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1968;149:956–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Touzé E, Varenne O, Chatellier G, Peyrard S, Rothwell PM, Mas JL. Risk of myocardial infarction and vascular death after transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke 2005 36:2748–2755CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Urbinati S, Di Pasquale G, Andreoli A, Lusa AM, Carini G, Grazi P, Labanti G, Passarelli P, Corbelli C, Pinelli G. Preoperative noninvasive coronary risk stratification in candidates for carotid endarterectomy. Stroke 1994;25:2022–2027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wald DS, Beswick JP. Carotid ultrasound screening for coronary heart disease: results based on a meta-analysis of 18 studies and 44861 subjects. J Med Screen 2009;16:147–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    White CJ, Beckman JA, Cambria RP, Comerota AJ, Gray WA, Hobson RW II, Iyer SS; Writing Group 5. Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Symposium II: controversies in carotid artery revascularization. Circulation 2008;118:2852–2859CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wong EY, Lawrence HP, Wong DT. The effects of prophylactic coronary revascularization or medical management on patient outcomes after noncardiac surgery – a meta-analysis. Can J Anaesth 2007;54:705–717CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yadav JS, Wholey MH, Kuntz RE, Fayad P, Katzen BT, Mishkel GJ, Bajwa TK, Whitlow P, Strickman NE, Jaff MR, Popma JJ, Snead DB, Cutlip DE, Firth BG, Ouriel K; Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy Investigators. Protected carotid-artery stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1493–1501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fulvio Orzan
    • 1
  • Matteo Anselmino
  • Margherita Cannillo
  1. 1.Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of TurinTurinItaly

Personalised recommendations