The Electron Ronchigram

  • Andrew R. Lupini


The electron Ronchigram is a form of inline hologram that offers a convenient way to directly see and measure electron optical aberrations. Any user of an aberration-corrected STEM is likely to benefit from a basic understanding of how such an image is formed and used. This chapter will review the formation of the electron Ronchigram with a particular emphasis on the effects and measurement of aberrations. This review will be largely based on our own approach and previously published work.


Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope Probe Position Spherical Aberration Chromatic Aberration Apparent Shift 
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Work funded by the Materials Science and Engineering Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. This chapter is a summary of work that has been performed and discussed with several other workers over many years. Fruitful discussions with Drs. A.L. Bleloch, O.L. Krivanek, L.M. Brown, P.D. Nellist, J.M. Rodenburg, A.I. Kirkland, P. Wang, and of course S.J. Pennycook, as well as others are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Science and Technology DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA

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