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Dynamic Force Microscopy and Spectroscopy in Ambient Conditions: Theory and Applications

  • Hendrik Hölscher
  • Jan-Erik Schmutz
  • Udo D. Schwarz
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we review the fundamentals of dynamic force microscopy (DFM) and dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) focusing on applications in ambient conditions. More specifically, we analyze the basic principles of the two important driving mechanisms that are used in AFM imaging modes:the amplitude-modulation technique (“tapping mode”) and the frequency-modulation technique. From this starting point, analytical descriptions of the two modes are developed. The theory is then applied in conjunction with numerical simulations to various situations occurring while imaging in ambient conditions. Finally, we present methods for the continuous measurement of the tip–sample interaction forces during the approach towards the sample surface using DFS.

Keywords

Amplitude Modulation Oscillation Amplitude Sample Distance Sample Interaction DPPC Monolayer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hendrik Hölscher
    • 1
  • Jan-Erik Schmutz
  • Udo D. Schwarz
  1. 1.Institute for Microstructure TechnologyKarlsruhe Institute of TechnologyEggenstein-LeopoldshafenGermany

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