NP Too Big or P Too Small?

  • Richard J. Lipton


Leonid Levin is a computer scientist who independently proved essentially the same theorem as Steve Cook did. They both did this in 1971 [90, 39]. This was during the height of the cold war and the information flow between Russia and the west was not very smooth. So it took a while for the theory community to understand what Levin had done. Levin is also famous, in my opinion, because his advisor was perhaps one of the most dominant mathematicians of the 20 th century: Andrey Kolmogorov. Kolmogorov solved long standing open problems as well as created entire new fields of mathematics. This is a powerful and unique combination.


Open Problem Unique Combination Conventional Wisdom Favorite Problem Circuit Complexity 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Georgia Institute of TechnologyCollege of Computing School of Computer ScienceAtlantaUSA

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