Advertisement

Gulf Countries

  • Mohamed Elkalyoubi
Chapter

Abstract

With the number of people living in Gulf countries exceeding 38 million, they are witnessing an increase in the number of IVF centers at a time when, paradoxically, competition is high. There are well-established governmental regulatory bodies, i.e., Ministries of Health, licensing departments, etc.; however, there exist no IVF laws or directives in most of these countries. One of the main aims of the legislations for IVF centers is to set standards, particularly for andrology and IVF laboratories. While IVF laws, directives, and regulations vary widely between countries, most aim at protecting the rights of all involved. They also lead to a decrease in some complications during IVF treatment. An obvious example is defining the number of embryos to be transferred which successfully reduces the incidence of multiple pregnancy. Some IVF experts, however, feel that less forceful regulation and more scientific freedom would allow faster development.

Keywords

Assisted Reproductive Technology Quality Management System Infertile Couple Gulf Country Scientific Freedom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Central Intelligence Agency. United States of America. http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/wfb.Ext/region_mde.html. Accessed 28 Feb 2011.
  2. 2.
    McCulloh DH. Quality control: maintaining stability in the laboratory. In: Gardner DK, Weissman A, Howles C, Shoham Z, editors. Textbook of assisted reproductive technologies laboratory and clinical perspectives. 3rd ed. London: Informa Healthcare; 2009. p. 9–24.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dickens BM. Legal developments in assisted reproduction. J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;101:211–5.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tur R, Corolen B, Torello MJ, et al. Prevention of multiple pregnancy following IVF in Spain. Reprod Biomed Online. 2006;13:856–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ludwig M, Felberbaum RE, Diedrich K. Regulation of assisted conception treatment: Germany. In: Brinsden P, editor. Textbook of in vitro fertilization and assisted reproduction The Bourn Hall guide to clinical and laboratory practice. London: Taylor & Francis; 2005. p. 641–5.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benagiano G, Gianaroli L. Regulating in vitro fertilization – the risks of over – regulation: Italy. In: Brinsden P, editor. Textbook of in vitro fertilization and assisted reproduction The Bourn Hall guide to clinical and laboratory practice. London: Taylor & Francis; 2005. p. 655–9.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mortimer D, Mortimer S. Quality and quality management. In: Mortimer D, Mortimer S, editors. Quality and risk management in the IVF laboratory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2005. p. 24–44.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wikland M, Sjoblom C. The application of quality systems in ART programs. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000;166:3–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gondringer NS. Benchmarking: friend or foe. AANAJ. 1997;65:335–6.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frydman N, Fanchin R, Le Du A, et al. Improvement of IVF results and optimization of quality control by using intermittent activity. Reprod Biomed Online. 2004;9(5):521–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Keck C, Ficher R, Baukloh V, et al. Staff management in the in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:1786–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Whitehead TP, Browning DM, Gregory A. A comparative survey of the results of analysis of blood serum in clinical chemistry laboratories in United Kingdom. J Clin Pathol. 1973;26:435–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bullock DG, Wilde CE. External quality assessment of urinary pregnancy oestrogen assay: further experience in the United Kingdom. Ann Clin Biochem. 1985;22:273–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    World Health Organization. WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction. 1st ed. Singapore: Press Concern; 1980.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    World Health Organization. WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1987.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    World Health Organization. WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1992.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Neuwinger J, Bejre H, Nieschla E. External quality control in the andrology laboratory: an experimental multicenter trial. Fertil Steril. 1990;54:308–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Matson P. External quality assessment for semen analysis and sperm antibody detection: results of a pilot scheme. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:620–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    World Health Organization. WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction. 5th ed. www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/infertility/human_repro_upd/en/. Assessed 25 Feb 2011.
  21. 21.
    Jequier AM. Is quality assurance in semen analysis still really necessary? A clinician’s viewpoint. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:2039–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Magli MC, Abeel EVD, Lundin K, et al. Revised guidelines for good practice in IVF laboratories. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:1253–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clinical Pathology Accreditation. Standards for medical laboratory. http://www.cpa-uk.co.uk. Assessed 26 Feb 2011.
  24. 24.
    Lane M, Mitchell M, Cashman KS, et al. To QC or not to QC: the key to a consistent laboratory? Reprod Fertil De. 2008;20:23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McDowell S, Murray A. Barrier to continuing in vitro fertilization – why do patients exit fertility treatment? Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;51:84–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li XH, Ma YG, Geng LH, et al. Baseline psychological stress and ovarian norepinephrine levels negatively affect the outcome of in vitro fertilisation. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2011;27:139–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Collings J. An international survey of the health economics of IVF and ICSI. Hum Reprod Update. 2002;8:265–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Alper MM, Brinsden PR, Fischer R, et al. Is your IVF programme good? Hum Reprod. 2002;17:8–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Garceau L, Henderson J, David LJ, et al. Economic implications of assisted reproductive techniques: s systematic review. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:3090–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dubai Gynaecology and Fertility Center, Dubai Health AuthorityDubaiUnited Arab Emirates

Personalised recommendations