Advertisement

Numerical Modeling of Data Center Clusters

  • Bahgat Sammakia
  • Siddharth Bhopte
  • Mahmoud Ibrahim
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter deals with the numerical modeling of data centers. The chapter presents an overview of the fundamental equations governing the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum, with an emphasis on the most widely used numerical approaches used for discretizing the equations and solving them. The specific simplifications and assumptions that are typically used in modeling data centers are reviewed. Turbulent modeling is covered in some detail, with an emphasis on the suitability of different models for data centers. A review of recent numerical studies of data centers is presented and compared to available measurements and characterization studies. Results for different air cooling protocols are presented and ranked according to their overall performance. A detailed discussion of the impact of blockages in the plenum, due to wiring and cooling water pipes, is presented and general design guidelines are made pertaining to placement of such blockages. Specific attention is given to the modeling of data centers during dynamic fluctuations in power, airflow, and temperature. This is of particular relevance for the establishment of dynamic self-regulating data centers that may be optimized to operate at the lowest possible energy level while they are meeting specific performance metrics. A case is made for verified reduced order modeling of dynamic data centers. Such an approach may be the most suitable and pragmatic one to achieve real-time holistic models that are capable of predicting and optimizing the overall performance of complex data centers.

Keywords

Computational Fluid Dynamic Data Center Inlet Temperature Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling Thermal Mass 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Kundu PK, Cohen IM (2008) Fluid mechanics. Elsevier, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schmidt R, Shaukatullah H (2003) Computer and telecommunications equipment room cooling: a review of literature. IEEE Trans Compon Packag Technol 26:89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rambo J, Joshi Y (2007) Modeling of data center airflow and heat transfer: state of the art and future trends. Distrib Parallel Databases 21(2):193–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kang S, Schmidt R, Kelkar KM, Radmehr A, Patankar S (2001) A methodology for the design of perforated tiles in raised floor data centers using computational flow analysis. IEEE Trans Compon Packag Technol 24(2):177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kang S, Schmidt R, Kelkar K, Patankar S (2001) A methodology for the design of perforated tiles in raised floor data centers using computational flow analysis. IEEE-CPMT J 24:177–183Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Karki K, Radmehr A, Patankar S (2003) Use of computational fluid dynamics for calculating flow rates through perforated tiles in raised-floor data centers. Int J Heat Vent Air-Conditioning Refrig Res 9(2):153–166Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Innovative Research, Inc. (2010) TileFlow: a simulation tool for airflow distribution in raised-floor data centers. Tile Flow Software, Innovative Research Inc, 3025 Harbor Lane N., Suite 300, Plymouth, MN 55447, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schmidt R, Karki K, Kelkar K, Radmehr A, Patankar S (2001) Measurements and predictions of the flow distribution through perforated tiles in raised-floor data centers. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (IPACK’01), Kauai, HawaiiGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Karki K, Patankar S (2003) Techniques for controlling airflow distribution in raised-floor data centers. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (IPACK’03), Maui, HawaiiGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Patankar S, Karki K (2004) Distribution of cooling airflow in a raised-floor data center. ASHRAE Trans 110(2):629–635Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rambo J, Nelson G, Joshi Y (2007) Airflow distribution through perforated tiles in close proximity to computer room air conditioning units. ASHRAE Trans 113(2):124–135Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schmidt R, Karki K, Patankar S (2004) Raised-floor data center: perforated tile flow rates for various tile layouts. In: Proceedings of the eighth intersociety conference on thermal and thermo-mechanical phenomena in electronic systems (ITHERM), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kumar P, Joshi Y (2010) Experimental investigation on the effect of perforated tile air jet velocity on server air distribution in a high density data center. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Radmehr A, Schmidt R, Karki K, Patankar S (2005) Distributed leakage flow in raised-floor data centers. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (IPACK’05), San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Karki K, Radmehr A, Patankar S (2007) Prediction of distributed air leakage in raised-floor data centers. ASHRAE Trans 113(1):219–226Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abdelmaksoud W, Khalifa HE, Dang T, Iyengar M, Schmidt R (2010) Experimental and computational study of perforated floor tile in data centers. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abdelmaksoud W, Khalifa HE, Dang T, Iyengar M, Schmidt R (2010) Improved CFD modeling of a small data center test cell. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schmidt R (2001) Effect of data center characteristics on data processing equipment inlet temperatures, Advances in Electronic Packaging 2001. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (IPACK’01), Kauai, Hawaii, vol 2. pp 1097–1106Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schmidt R, Cruz E (2002) Raised floor computer data center: effect on rack inlet temperatures of chilled air exiting both the hot and cold aisles. In: Proceedings of the eighth intersociety conference on thermal and thermo-mechanical phenomena in electronic systems (ITHERM), San Diego, CA, pp 580–594Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schmidt R, Cruz E (2002) Raised floor computer data center: effect on rack inlet temperatures when high powered racks are situated amongst lower powered racks. In: IMECE conference, New Orleans, LA, pp 297–309Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schmidt R, Cruz E (2003) Raised floor computer data center: effect on rack inlet temperatures when adjacent racks are removed. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (IPACK’03), Maui, Hawaii, pp 481–493Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schmidt R, Cruz E (2003) Raised floor computer data center: effect on rack inlet temperatures when rack flowrates are reduced. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (IPACK’03), Maui, Hawaii, pp 495–508Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schmidt R (2004) Thermal profile of a high density data center-methodology to thermally characterize a data center. In: Proceedings of the ASHRAE Nashville conference, pp 604–611.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schmidt R, Cruz E (2004) Cluster of high-powered racks within a raised-floor computer data center: effect of perforated tile flow distribution on rack inlet air temperatures. ASME J Electron Packag 126(24):510–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Patel CD, Sharma RK, Bash CE, Beitelmal A (2002) Thermal considerations in cooling large scale high computer density data centers. In: Proceedings of the eighth intersociety conference on thermal and thermo-mechanical phenomena in electronic systems (ITHERM), San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gondipalli S, Bhopte S, Sammakia B, Iyengar M, Schmidt R (2008) Effect of isolating cold aisles on rack inlet temperatures. In: IEEE ITHERM, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gondipalli S, Bhopte S, Sammakia B, Murray B, Iyengar M, Schmidt R (2009) Optimization of cold aisle isolation designs for a data center with roofs and doors using slits. ASME InterPACK, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nakao M, Hayama H, Nishioka M (1991) Which cooling air supply system is better for a high heat density room: underfloor or overhead. In: Proceedings of the international telecommunications energy conference (INTELEC), Kyoto, Japan, pp 393–400Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Noh H, Song K, Chun SK (1998) The cooling characteristic on the air supply and return flow system in the telecommunication cabinet room. In: Proceedings of the international telecommunications energy conference (INTELEC), San Francisco, CA, pp 777–784Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Patel CD, Bash CE, Belady C, Stahl L, Sullivan D (2001) Computational fluid dynamics modeling of high compute density data centers to assure system inlet air specification. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (InterPACK), Kauai, HIGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shrivastava SK, Sammakia B, Schmidt R, Iyengar M (2005) Comparative analysis of different data center airflow management configurations. In: Proceedings of InterPACK, 17–22 July, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Herrlin MK, Belady C (2006) Gravity-assisted air mixing in data centers and how it affects the rack cooling effectiveness. In: Proceedings of the tenth intersociety conference on thermal and thermo-mechanical phenomena in electronic systems (ITHERM), San Diego, CA, pp 434–438Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schmidt R, Iyengar M (2007) Comparison between underfloor supply and overhead supply ventilation designs for data center high-density clusters. ASHRAE Trans 113(1):115–125Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rambo J, Joshi Y (2006) Convective transport processes in data centers. Num Heat Transf A Appl 49(10):923–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rambo J, Joshi Y (2006) Thermal modeling of technology infrastructure facilities: a case study of data centers. In: Minkowycz WJ, Sparrow EM, Murthy JY (eds) Handbook of numerical heat transfer, vol II. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 821–849Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sharma RK, Bash CE, Patel CD (2002) Dimensionless parameters for evaluation of thermal design and performance of large-scale data centers. In: Proceedings of the eighth ASME/AIAA joint thermophysics and heat transfer conference, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sharma RK, Bash CE (2002) Dimensionless parameters for energy efficient data center design. In: Proceedings of the IMAPS advanced technology workshop on thermal management (THERM ATW), Palo Alto, CAGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Escobar S, Sharma R (2008) Data center characteristic temperature signatures and SHI correlation to nondimensional parameters. In: Proceedings of the ninth intersociety conference on thermal and thermo-mechanical phenomena in electronic systems (ITHERM), Orlando, FL, pp 1203–1209Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schmidt R, Cruz E, Iyengar M (2005) Challenges of data center thermal management. IBM J Res Develop 49:709–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Norota M, Hayama H, Enai M, Mori T, Kishita M (2003) Research on efficiency of air conditioning system for data center. Presented at INTELEC’03 – 25th International telecommunications energy conference, Yokohama, Japan, pp 147–151Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Malone C, Belady C (2006) Metrics to characterize data center & IT equipment energy use. In: Proceedings of the 2006 digital power forum, Richardson, TXGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Belady C, Malone C (2007) Metrics and infrastructure model to evaluate data center efficiency. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (InterPACK), Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tozer R, Salim M (2010) Data center air management metrics – practical approach. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhang X, VanGilder J, Iyengar M, Schmidt RR (2008) Effect of rack modeling detail on the numerical results of a data center test cell. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), 28–31 May, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rambo J, Joshi Y (2003) Multi-scale modeling of high power density data centers. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (IPACK’03), Maui, Hawaii, USAGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rambo J, Joshi Y (2005) Thermal performance metrics for arranging forced air cooled servers in a data processing cabinet. ASME J Electron Packag 127:452–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Herrlin M (2005) Rack cooling effectiveness in data centers and telecom central offices: the Rack cooling index (RCI). ASHRAE Trans 111(2):725–731Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rolander N, Rambo J, Joshi Y, Mistree F (2005) Towards sustainable design of data centers: addressing the lifecycle mismatch problem. Presented at IPACK’05 – international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rolander N, Rambo J, Joshi Y, Mistree F, Allen JK (2006) Robust design of turbulent convective systems using the proper orthogonal decomposition. ASME J 128:844–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rambo J, Joshi Y (2005) Reduced order modeling of steady turbulent flows using the POD. Presented at ASME summer heat transfer conference, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stahl L, Belady C (2001) Designing an alternative to conventional room cooling. In: Proceedings of international telecommunications energy conference, pp 109–115Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Beitelmal A, Patel CD (2004) Thermo-fluids provisioning of a high performance high density data center. Technical Report No. HPL-2004-146(R.1), Hewlett Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto CAGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ibrahim M, Bhopte S, Sammakia B, Iyengar M, Schmidt R (2010) Effect of thermal characteristics of electronic enclosures on dynamic data center performance. In: IMECE conference, Vancouver, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ibrahim M, Gondipalli S, Bhopte S, Sammakia B, Murray B, Ghose K, Iyengar M, Schmidt R (2010) Numerical modeling approach to dynamic data center cooling. In: Proceedings of the intersociety conference on thermal phenomena (ITHERM), Las Vegas, USAGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sharma RK, Bash CE, Patel CD, Friedrich RJ, Chase JS (2003) Balance of power: dynamic thermal management of internet data centers. Technical Report No. HPL-2003-5, Hewlett Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto, CAGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Patel CD, Bash CE, Sharma RK, Beitelmal A, Friedrich RJ (2003) Smart cooling of data centers. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (InterPACK), Kauai, HIGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bash C, Patel C, Sharma K (2006) Dynamic thermal management of air cooled data centers. In: Proceedings of the tenth intersociety conference on thermal and thermo-mechanical phenomena in electronic systems (ITHERM), San Diego, CA, pp 445–452Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Boucher TD, Auslander DM, Bash CE, Federspiel CC, Patel CD (2004) Viability of dynamic cooling control in a data center environment. In: Proceedings of the ninth intersociety conference on thermal and thermo-mechanical phenomena in electronic systems (ITHERM), San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Iyengar M, Schmidt R, Hamann H, VanGilder J (2007) Comparison between numerical and experimental temperature distributions in a small data center test cell. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (IPACK’07), Vancouver, Canada, pp 819–826Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bhopte S, Sammakia B, Iyengar M, Schmidt R, Agonafer D (2006) Effect of under floor blockages on data center performance. In: Proceeding of IEEE ITHERM, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bhopte S, Sammakia B, Iyengar M, Schmidt R, Agonafer D (2007) Numerical modeling of data center clusters – impact of model complexity. In: Proccedings of ASME IMECE, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bhopte S, Sammakia B, Iyengar M, Schmidt R (2007) Guidelines on managing under floor blockages for improved data center performance. In: Proceedings of ASME IMECE, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bhopte S, Sammakia B, Iyengar M, Schmidt R (2007) Experimental investigation of the impact of under floor blockages on flow distribution in a data center cell. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference (InterPACK), Vancouver, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cruz E, Joshi Y, Iyengar M, Schmidt R (2009) Comparison of numerical modeling to experimental data in a small data center test cell. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference (InterPACK), July, Paper number IPACK2009-89306Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cruz E, Joshi Y, Iyengar M, Schmidt R (2009) Comparison of numerical modeling to experimental data in a small, low power data center test cell. In: Proceedings of ASME IMECE conference, November, Paper number IMECE2009-12860Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Samadiani E, Rambo J, Joshi Y (2010) Numerical modeling of perforated tile flow distribution in a raised-floor data center. J Electron Packag 132(2):021002 (8 pp)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schmidt R, Iyengar M, Caricari J (2010) Data center housing high performance supercomputer cluster: above floor thermal measurements compared to CFD analysis. J Electron Packag 132(2):021009 (8 pp)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Karki K, Patankar S (2006) Airflow distribution through perforated tiles in raised-floor data centers. Build Environ 41(6):734–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lopez V, Hamann HF (2010) Measurement-based modeling for data centers. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hamann HF, Lopez V, Stepanchuk A (2010) Thermal zones for more efficient data center energy management. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    VanGilder JW, Shrivastava SK (2006) Real-time prediction of rack-cooling performance. ASHRAE Trans 112(2):151–162Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Toulouse M, Doljac G, Bash C (2009) Exploration of a potential-flow-based compact model of air-flow transport in data centers. In: ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Technical PublicationGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Samadiani E, Joshi Y, Mistree F (2008) The thermal design of a next generation data center: a conceptual exposition. J Electron Packag 134(4):041104 (8 pp)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rambo J (2006) Reduced-order modeling of multiscale turbulent convection: application to data center thermal management. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rambo J, Joshi Y (2003) Physical models in data center airflow simulations. In: Proceedings of IMECE’03 – ASME international mechanical engineering congress and R&D exposition, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Somani A, Joshi Y (2009) Data center cooling optimization – ambient intelligence based load management (AILM). In: Proceedings of the ASME heat transfer summer conference, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shrivastava SK, Sammakia B, Schmidt R, Iyengar M (2005) Significance level of factors for different airflow management configurations of data centers. In: Proceedings of ASME IMECE, 5–11 Nov, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Shrivastava S, Iyengar M, Sammakia B, Schmidt R, VanGilder JW (2009) Experimental-numerical comparison for a high-density data center: hot spot heat fluxes in excess of 500 W/ft2. IEEE Trans Compon Packag Technol 32(1):166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shrivastava SK, VanGilder JW, Sammakia B (2006) A statistical prediction of cold aisle end airflow boundary conditions. In: Proceedings of IEEE ITHERM 2006, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shrivastava SK, VanGilder JW, Sammakia B (2007) Prediction of cold aisle end airflow boundary conditions using regression modeling. IEEE Trans Compon Packag Technol 30(4):866–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    VanGilder JW, Zhang X, Shrivastava SK (2007) Partially decoupled aisle method for estimating rack cooling performance in near real time. In: Proceedings of ASME InterPACK 2007, 8–12 July, Vancouver, BC, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shrivastava SK, VanGilder JW, Sammakia BG (2007) Data center cooling prediction using artificial neural network. In: Proceedings of ASME InterPack, 8–12 July, Vancouver, BC, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Shrivastava SK, VanGilder JW, Sammakia BG (2008) Optimization of cluster cooling performance of data centers. In: Proceedings of IEEE ITHERM, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Marwah M, Sharma R, Bash C (2010) Thermal anomaly prediction in data centers. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Iyengar M, Schmidt R, Caricari J (2010) Reducing energy usage in data canters through control of room air conditioning units. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Breem T, Walsh E, Punch J, Shah A, Bash C (2010) From chip to cooling tower data center modeling: part I influence of server inlet temperature and temperature rise across cabinet. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Walsh E, Breem T, Punch J, Shah A, Bash C (2010) From chip to cooling tower data center modeling: part II influence of chip temperature control philosophy. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Scofield C, Weaver T (2008) Data center cooling: using wet-bulb economizers. ASHRAE J 50(8):52–54, 56–58Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Munther S (2009) Energy in data centers: benchmarking and lessons learned. Eng Syst 26(4):24–32Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Scofield C, Weaver T, Dunnavant K, Fisher M (2009) Reduce data center cooling cost by 75%. Eng Syst 24(6):34–41Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Judge J, Pouchet J, Ekbote A, Dixit S (2008) Reducing data center energy consumption. ASHRAE J 50(11):14–26Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shah A, Carey V, Bash C, Patel C (2006) An exergy-based figure-of-merit for electronic packages. ASME J Electron Packag 128(4):360–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shah A, Carey V, Bash C, Patel C (2008) Exergy analysis of data center thermal management systems. ASME J Heat Transf 130(2):021401 (1–9)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    McAllister S, Carey V, Shah A, Bash C, Patel C (2008) Strategies for effective use of exergy-based modeling of data center thermal managements systems. Microelectron J 39(7):1023–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bash C, Shih R, Shah A, Patel C (2010) Data center damage boundaries. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schmidt R, Chu RC, Elssworth M, Iyengar M, Porter D, Kamath V, Lehmann B (2005) Maintaining datacom rack inlet air temperatures with water cooled heat exchangers. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (IPACK’05), San Francisco, vol 2, pp 905–914Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Schmidt R, Iyengar M (2009) Server rack rear door heat exchanger and the new ASHRAE recommended environmental guidelines. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference (InterPACK), Paper number IPACK2009-89212.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tsukamoto T, Takayoshi J, Schmidt R, Iyengar M (2009) Refrigeration heat exchanger systems for server rack cooling in data centers. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference (InterPACK), Paper number IPACK2009-89258.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kelkar K, Patankar S, Kang S, Iyengar M, Schmidt R (2010) Computational method for generalized analysis of pumped two-phase cooling systems and its applications to a system used in data-center environments. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kumari N, Bahadur V, Hodes M, Salamon T, Lyons A, Kolodner P, Garimella S (2009) Numerical modeling of mist-cooled high power components in cabinets. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim/ASME international electronic packaging technical conference and exhibition (IPACK’09), San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Schmidt R, Iyengar M, Porter D, Weber G, Graybill D, Steffes J (2010) Open side car heat exchanger that removes entire server heat load without and added fan power. In: Proceedings of the inter society conference on thermal phenomena (ITherm), Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bahgat Sammakia
    • 1
  • Siddharth Bhopte
    • 1
  • Mahmoud Ibrahim
    • 1
  1. 1.Small Scale System Integration & Packaging CenterBinghamton University—State University of New YorkBinghamtonUSA

Personalised recommendations