• Andrew J. Larner


Kayser–Fleischer rings are deposits of copper, seen as a brownish discoloration, in Descemet’s membrane. Although often visible to the naked eye (difficult in people with a brown iris), they are best seen with slit-lamp examination. Since they are a highly reliable sign of intracerebral copper deposition in Wilson’s disease (hepatolenticular degeneration), any patient suspected of this diagnosis (i.e. with parkinsonism or dystonia presenting before age 50 years) should have a slit-lamp examination (as well as blood copper and caeruloplasmin, and urinary copper, measurements). Very occasionally cases of neurological Wilson’s disease without Kayser–Fleischer rings have been reported.


Essential Tremor Spinal Muscular Atrophy Cross Reference Stiff Person Syndrome Frontal Lobe Dysfunction 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew J. Larner
    • 1
  1. 1.Walton Centre for Neurology & NeurosurgeryLiverpoolUK

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