Advertisement

How Money Matters for Children’s Socioemotional Adjustment: Family Processes and Parental Investment

  • Vonnie C. McLoyd
Chapter
Part of the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation book series (NSM, volume 57)

Abstract

Numerous studies conducted by researchers in public health, psychology, and sociology have found that children and adolescents from disadvantaged families (e.g., “officially poor” families, families with low income-to-needs ratios) are at an increased risk of mental health problems, including depressive symptomatology, hostility, difficulties in peer relations, low self-esteem, and drug use (Bolger, Patterson, & Thompson, 1995; Brooks-Gunn & Furstenberg, 1989; Currie & Lin, 2007; Elder, Nguyen, & Caspi, 1985; Goodman, 1999; Goosby, 2007; Strohschein, 2005; Wadsworth, Raviv, Compas, & Connor-Smith, 2005)

Keywords

Child Care Child Care Subsidy Formal Child Care Neighborhood Stress Maternal Psychological Distress 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bar-On, R., Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L., & Bechara, A. (2003). Exploring the neurological substrate of emotional and social intelligence. Brain, 126, 1790–1800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Barnett, T. E., & Caldwell, C. H. (2007). Working in high school and adaptation in the transition to young adulthood among African American youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 877–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belle, D. (1982). Social ties and social support. In D. Belle (Ed.), Lives in stress: Women and depression (pp. 133–144). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Berlin, G. (2007). Rewarding the work of individuals: A counterintuitive approach to reducing poverty and strengthening families. The Future of Children, 27, 17–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blank, S. W., & Blum, B. (1997). A brief history of work expectations for welfare mothers. The Future of Children, 7(1), 28–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolger, K. E., Patterson, C. J., & Thompson, W. W. (1995). Psychosocial adjustment among children experiencing persistent and intermittent family economic hardship. Child Development, 66(4), 1107–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bos, J. M., Huston, A. C., Granger, R. C., Duncan, G. J., Brock, T. W., & McLoyd, V. C. (1999). New Hope for people with low incomes: Two-year results of a program to reduce poverty and reform welfare. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.Google Scholar
  8. Brody, G. H., & Flor, D. (1998). Maternal resources, parenting practices, and child competence in rural, single-parent African American families. Child Development, 69, 803–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., & Flor, D. (1995). Linking family processes and academic competence among rural African American youths. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 567–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., Flor, D., McCrary, C., Hastings, L., & Conyers, O. (1994). Financial resources, parent psychological functioning, parent co-caregiving, and early adolescent competence in rural two-parent African American families. Child Development, 65, 590–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brody, G., Stoneman, Z., Flor, D., McCrary, C., Hastings, L., & Conyers, O. (1994). Financial resources, parent psychological functioning, parent co-caregiving, and early adolescent competence in rural two-parent African-American families. Child Development, 65, 590–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychology Reviews, 101, 568–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brooks-Gunn, J., & Furstenberg, F. F. (1989). Adolescent sexual behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 249–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burchinal, M. R., Campbell, F. A., Bryant, D. M., Wasik, B. H., & Ramey, C. T. (1997). Early intervention and mediating processes in cognitive performance of children in low-income African American families. Child Development, 68, 935–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2000). Report on the youth labor force. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.Google Scholar
  16. Burton, L. M., Obeidallah, D. A., & Allison, K. (1996). Ethnographic insights on social context and adolescent development among inner-city African American teens. In R. Jessor, A. Colby, & R. A. Shweder (Eds.), Ethnography and human development: Context and meaning in social inquiry (pp. 395–418). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, K. E., & Lee, B. A. (1992). Sources of personal neighbor networks: Social integration, need, or time? Social Forces, 70, 1077–1100.Google Scholar
  18. Capaldi, D. M., Pears, K. C., Patterson, G. R., & Owen, L. D. (2003). Continuity of parenting practices across generations in an at-risk sample: A prospective comparison of direct and mediated associations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(2), 127–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cauce, A. M., Stewart, A., Rodriguez, M. D., Cochran, M., & Ginzler, J. (2003). Overcoming the odds? Adolescent development in the context of urban poverty. In S. S. Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 343–363). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ceballo, R., & McLoyd, V. C. (2002). Social support and parenting in poor, dangerous neighborhoods. Child Development, 73, 1310–1321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cherry, F. F., & Eaton, E. L. (1977). Physical and cognitive development in children of low-income mothers working in the child’s early years. Child Development, 48, 158–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clausen, J. S. (1991). Adolescent competence and the shaping of the life course. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 805–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1992). A family process model of economic hardship and adjustment of early adolescent boys. Child Development, 63, 526–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. J., Jr., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Economic stress, coercive family processes, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Development, 65, 541–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Conger, R., Patterson, G. R., & Ge, X. (1995). It takes two to replicate: A mediational model for the impact of parents’ stress on adolescent adjustment. Child Development, 66, 80–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Conger, R. D., Wallace, L. E., Sun, Y., Simons, R. L., McLoyd, V. C., & Brody, G. H. (2002). Economic pressure in African American families: A replication and extension of the family stress model. Developmental Psychology, 38(2), 179–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cook, T. D., Church, M. B., Ajanaku, S., Shadish, W. R., Kim, J., & Cohen, R. (1996). The development of occupational aspirations and expectations among inner-city boys. Child Development, 67, 3368–3385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review, 96, 608–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Currie, J., & Lin, W. (2007). Chipping away at health: More on the relationship between income and child health. Health Affairs, 26(2), 331–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Desai, S., Chase-Lansdale, P. L., & Michael, R. T. (1989). Mother or market? Effects of maternal employment on the intellectual ability of 4-year-old children. Demography, 26, 545–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dressler, W. (1985). Extended family relationships, social support, and mental health in a southern black community. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 26, 39–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dubow, E. F., Edwards, S., & Ippolito, M. F. (1997). Life stressors, neighborhood disadvantages, and resources: A focus on inner-city children’s adjustment. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 130–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Duncan, G. J. (1991). The economic environment of childhood. In A. Huston (Ed.), Children in poverty: Child development and public policy (pp. 23–50). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  35. Duncan, G. J., Huston, A. C., & Weisner, T. S. (2007). Higher ground: New Hope for the working poor and their children. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Duncan, G. J., Miller, C., Classens, A., Engel, M., Hill, H., & Lindsay, C. (2008). New hope’s eight-year impacts on employment and family income. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.Google Scholar
  37. Edelman, P., Holzer, H. J., & Offner, P. (2006). Reconnecting disadvantaged young men. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  38. Elder, G. (1974). Children of the great depression. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  39. Elder, G., Nguyen, T., & Caspi, A. (1985). Linking family hardship to children’s lives. Child Development, 56, 361–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L., & Olson, L. S. (2000). Early work histories of urban youth. American Sociological Review, 65, 279–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59(2), 77–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Evans, G. W., Kim, P., Ting, A. H., Tesher, H. B., & Shannas, D. (2007). Cumulative risk, maternal responsiveness, and allostatic load in young adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 43(2), 341–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fishbein, D., Herman-Stahl, M., & Eldreth, D. (2006). Mediators of the stress-substance-use relationship in urban male adolescents. Prevention Science, 7(2), 113–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Flanagan, C. A. (1990). Families and schools in hard times. In V. C. McLoyd & C. A. Flanagan (Eds.), New directions for child development, 46: Economic stress: Effects on family life and child development (pp. 7–26). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  45. Furstenberg, F. F. (2000). The sociology of adolescence and youth in the 1990’s: A critical commentary. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 896–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Garbarino, J. (1977). The price of privacy in the social dynamics of child abuse. Child Welfare, 56, 565–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Garbarino, J., & Sherman, D. (1980). High risk neighborhoods and high-risk families. The human ecology of child maltreatment. Child Development, 51, 188–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gennetian, L. A., Duncan, G. J., Knox, V. W., Vargas, W. G., Clark-Kauffman, E., & London, A. S. (2004). How welfare and work policies for parents affect adolescents’ school outcomes: A synthesis of evidence from experimental studies. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 14, 399–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Glasgow, D. (1981). The black underclass: Poverty, unemployment and entrapment of Ghetto youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  50. Goodman, E. (1999). The role of socioeconomic status gradients in explaining differences in US adolescents’ health. American Journal of Public Health, 89(10), 1522–1528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Goosby, B. J. (2007). Poverty duration, maternal psychological resources, and adolescent socioeconomic outcomes. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 1113–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gouldner, H. (1978). Teachers’ pets, troublemakers, and nobodies: Black children in elementary school. Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  53. Greenberg., M. (2007). Next steps for federal child care policy. The Future of Children, 27, 73–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Greenberg, M. H., Levin-Epstein, J., Hutson, R. Q., Ooms, T. J., Schumacher, R., Turetsky, V., et al. (2002). The 1996 welfare law: Key elements and reauthorization issues affecting children. The Future of Children, 12, 27–57.Google Scholar
  55. Gutman, L. M., & Eccles, J. S. (1999). Financial strain, parenting behaviors, and adolescents’ achievement: Testing model equivalence between African American and European American single- and two-parent families. Child Development, 70, 1464–1476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gutman, L., McLoyd, V. C., & Toyokawa, T. (2005). Financial strain, neighborhood stress, parenting behaviors, and adolescent functioning of urban African American boys and girls. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15, 425–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. H.R.1., 111th Congress, American Investment and Recovery Act. (2009). (enacted).Google Scholar
  58. Hellenga, K., Aber, M., & Rhodes, J. (2002). African American adolescent mothers’ vocational aspiration-expectation gap: Individual, social and environmental influences. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 200–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hill, M. S., & Sandford, J. R. (1995). Effects of childhood poverty on productivity later in life: Implications for public policy. Children & Youth Services Review, 17, 91–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Huston, A. C. (Ed.). (1991). Children in poverty: Child development and public policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Huston, A. C., Duncan, G. J., Granger, R., Bos, J., McLoyd, V. C., Mistry, R., et al. (2001). Work-based antipoverty programs for parents can enhance the school performance and social behavior of children. Child Development, 72(1), 318–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Huston, A. C., Duncan, G. J., McLoyd, V. C., Crosby, D. A., Ripke, M. N., Weisner, T. S., et al. (2005). Impacts on children of a policy to promote employment and reduce poverty for low-income parents: New Hope after 5 years. Developmental Psychology, 41, 902–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Huston, A. C., Gupta, A., Bentley, A., Dowsett, C., Ware, A., & Epps, S. (2008). New hope’s effects on social behavior, parenting, and activities at 8 years. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.Google Scholar
  64. Huston, A. C., Gupta, A., Walker, J. T., Dowsett, C., Epps, S., & McLoyd, V. C. (2009). The long-term effects on children and adolescents of a policy providing work supports for low-income parents. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  65. Huston, A. C., Miller, C., Richburg-Hayes, L., Duncan, G. J., Eldred, C. A., Weisner, T. S., et al. (2003). New Hope for families and children: Five-year results of a program to reduce poverty and reform welfare. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.Google Scholar
  66. Institute for Research on Poverty. (1976). The rural income maintenance experiment. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  67. Jackson, A. P., Brooks-Gunn, J., Huang, C., & Glassman, M. (2000). Single mothers in low-wage jobs: Financial strain, parenting, and preschoolers’ outcomes. Child Development, 71, 1409–1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jarrett, R. L. (1995). Growing up poor: The family experiences of socially mobile youth in low-income African American neighborhoods. Journal of Adolescent Research, 10(1), 111–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Johnson, M. K. (2004). Further evidence on adolescent employment and substance use: Differences by race and ethnicity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 187–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kerpelman, J. L., & Mosher, L. S. (2004). Rural African American adolescents’ future orientation: The importance of self-efficacy, control, responsibility, and identity development. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 4, 187–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kershaw, D., & Fair, J. (1976). The New Jersey income maintenance experiment. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  72. Kim, I. J., Ge, X., Brody, G. H., Conger, R. D., Gibbons, F. X., & Simons, R. L. (2003). Parenting behaviors and the occurrence and co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and conduct problems among African American children. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(4), 571–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kingsley, G. T., & Pettit, K. (2003). Concentrated poverty: A change in course. The Neighborhood Change in Urban America Series: Brief 2. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  74. Korenman, S., Miller, J. E., & Sjaastad, J. E. (1995). Long-term poverty and child development in the United States: Results from the NLSY. Children & Youth Services Review, 17, 127–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kotchick, B. A., Dorsey, S., & Heller, L. (2005). Predictors of parenting among African American single mothers: Personal and contextual factors. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 67, 448–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lamb, M. E. (1998). Non-parental child care: Context, quality, correlates, and consequences. In W. Damon (Series Ed.), I. Sigel, & K. A. Renninger (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol 4. Child psychology in practice (5th ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  77. Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  78. Larson, J. (1984). The effect of husband’s unemployment on marital and family relations in blue-collar families. Family Relations, 33, 503–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Larson, R. W. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55(1), 170–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Moving to Opportunity: An experimental study of neighborhood effects on mental health. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 1576–1582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Leventhal, T., Graber, J. A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2001). Adolescent transitions to young adulthood: Antecedents, correlates, and consequences of adolescent employment. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 297–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Li, S. T., Nussbaum, K. M., & Richards, M. H. (2007). Risk and protective factors for urban African-American youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39, 21–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Light, A. L. (1995). High school employment (Discussion paper 95–27). Washington, DC: US Department of Labor.Google Scholar
  84. Linver, M. R., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Kohen, D. E. (2002). Family process as pathways from income to young children’s development. Developmental Psychology, 38(5), 719–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Loeb, S., Fuller, B., Kagan, S., & Carrol, B. (2004). Child care in poor communities: Early learning effects of type, quality, and stability. Child Development, 75, 47–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lynam, D. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Wikstrom, P., Loeber, R., & Novak, S. P. (2000). The interaction between impulsivity and neighborhood context on offending: The effects of impulsivity are stronger in poorer neighborhoods. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 563–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. MacLeod, J. (1987). Ain’t no makin’ it: Aspirations and attainment in a low-income neighborhood. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  89. Mahoney, J. L., & Bergman, L. B. (2002). Conceptual and methodological considerations in a developmental approach to the study of positive adaptation. Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 195–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R. W., & Eccles, J. S. (Eds.). (2005). Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates.Google Scholar
  91. Makosky, V. P. (1982). Sources of stress: Events or conditions? In D. Belle (Ed.), Lives in stress: Women and depression (pp. 35–53). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  92. McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McLoyd, V. C., Jayaratne, T., Ceballo, R., & Borquez, J. (1994). Unemployment and work interruption among African American single mothers: Effects on parenting and adolescent socioemotional functioning. Child Development, 65, 562–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McLoyd, V. C., & Jozefowicz, D. (1996). Sizing up the future: Predictors of African American adolescent females’ expectancies about their economic fortunes and family life course. In B. Leadbeater & N. Way (Eds.), Creating identities, resisting stereotypes: Urban adolescent girls. New York: University Press.Google Scholar
  96. McLoyd, V. C., Kaplan, R., & Hardaway, C. (2010). Maternal psychological distress, child management, delinquent behavior and the moderating influence of neighborhood disadvantage in low-income families. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  97. McLoyd, V. C., Kaplan, R., Purtell, K., Bagley, E., Hardaway, C., & Smalls, C. (2009). Poverty and socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (3rd ed., pp. 444–491). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  98. Milne, A. M., Myers, D. E., Rosenthal, A. S., & Ginsburg, A. (1986). Single parents, working mothers, and the educational achievement of school children. Sociology of Education, 59, 125–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mistry, R. S., Vandewater, E. A., Huston, A. C., & McLoyd, V. C. (2002). Economic well-being and children’s social adjustment: The role of family process in an ethnicallydiverse low-income sample. Child Development, 73, 935–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Moore, K. A., & Driscoll, A. K. (1997). Low wage maternal employment and outcomes for children: A study. The Future of Children, 7, 122–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Morris, P. A., Huston, A. C., Duncan, G. J., Crosby, D. A., & Bos, J. M. (2001). How welfare and work policies affect children: A synthesis of research. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.Google Scholar
  102. Murray, B. (1996). Program helps kids map realistic goals. American Psychological Association Monitor, 27, 40.Google Scholar
  103. Neblett, N. G., & Cortina, K. S. (2006). Adolescents’ thoughts about parents’ jobs and their importance for adolescents’ future orientation. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 795–811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Newman, K. S. (1999). No shame in my game: The working poor in the inner city. New York: Knopf and the Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  105. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (2000). The relation of child care to cognitive and language development. Child Development, 71, 960–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Orr, L., Feins, J., Jacob, R., Beecroft, E., Sanbonmatsu, L., Katz, L. F., et al. (2003, September). Moving to opportunity for fair housing demonstration: Interim impacts evaluation. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.Google Scholar
  107. Parcel, T. L., & Menaghan, E. G. (1997). Effects of low-wage employment on family well-being. The Future of Children, 7, 116–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Phillips, D., & Bridgman, A. (1995). Child care for low-income families: Summary of two workshops. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  109. Pogash, C. (2008, March 1). Poor students in high school suffer stigma from lunch aid. New York Times, p.1.Google Scholar
  110. Posner, J. K., & Vandell, D. L. (1994). Low-income children’s after-school care: Are there beneficial effects of after-school programs? Child Development, 65, 440–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Quane, J., & Rankin, B. (1998). Neighborhood poverty, family characteristics, and commitment to mainstream goals. Journal of Family Issues, 19, 769–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Quint, J. C., Bos, H., & Polit, D. F. (1997). New chance: Final report on a comprehensive program for young mothers in poverty and their children. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.Google Scholar
  113. Quinton, D., Pickles, A., Maughan, B., & Rutter, M. (1993). Partners, peers, and pathways: Assortative pairing and continuities and discontinuities in conduct disorder. Developmental Psychology, 5, 763–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rankin, B. H., & Quane, J. M. (2002). Social contexts and urban adolescent outcomes: The interrelated effects of neighborhoods, families, and peers on African-American youth. Social Problems, 49, 79–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Roth, J. L., Murray, L., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Foster, W. (1999). Youth development programs. In D. J. Besharov (Ed.), America’s disconnected youth: Toward a preventive strategy (pp. 267–294). Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.Google Scholar
  116. Ruhm, C. J. (1997). Is high school employment consumption or investment? Journal of Labor Economics, 15, 735–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Salkind, N. J., & Haskins, R. (1982). Negative Income Tax: The impact on children from low-income families. Journal of Family Issues, 3, 165–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sameroff, A., Gutman, L. M., & Peck, S. C. (2003). Adaptation among youth facing multiple risks: Prospective research findings. In S. S. Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 364–391). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sanchez, B., Esparza, P., & Colon, Y. (2008). Natural mentoring under the microscope: An investigation of mentoring relationships and Latino adolescents’ academic performance. Journal of Community Psychology, 36, 468–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Scarr, S. (1998). American child care today. American Psychologist, 53, 95–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sears, H., & Galambos, N. (1993). The employed mother’s well-being. In J. Frankel (Ed.), The employed mother and the family context. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  122. Shinn, M., & Gillespie, C. (1994). The roles of housing and poverty in the origins of homelessness. American Behavioral Scientist, 37, 505–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sinha, R. (2001). How does stress increase risk of drug abuse and relapse? Psychopharmacology, 158, 343–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Smith, J., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Klebanov, P. (1997). Consequences of living in poverty for young children’s cognitive and verbal ability and early school achievement. In G. Duncan & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 132–189). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  125. Stanger, C., Dumenci, L., Kamon, J., & Burstein, M. (2004). Parenting and children’s externalizing problems in substance-abusing families. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(3), 590–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Steinberg, L., & Silk, J.(2002). Parenting adolescents. In M. Bornstein (Ed.) Handbook of parenting: Vol. 1. Children and parenting. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  127. Strohschein, L. A. (2005). Household income histories and child mental health trajectories. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(4), 359–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Task Force on Youth Development and Community Programs. (1992). A matter of time: Risk and opportunity in non-school hours. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York.Google Scholar
  129. Taylor, R. D., Casten, R., & Flickinger, S. (1993). The influence of kinship social support on the parenting experiences and psychosocial adjustment of African American adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 29, 382–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Taylor, R. D., Rodriguez, A. U., Seaton, E., & Dominguez, A. (2004). Association of financial resources with parenting and adolescent adjustment in African-American families. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19, 267–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2002). Trends in the well-being of America’s children and youth. Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.Google Scholar
  132. Vandell, D. L., & Ramanan, J. (1992). Effects of early and recent maternal employment on children from low-income families. Child Development, 63, 938–949.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wadsworth, M. E., Raviv, T., Compas, B. E., & Connor-Smith, J. K. (2005). Parent and adolescent responses to poverty-related stress: Tests of mediated and moderated coping models. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(2), 283–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wandersman, A., & Nation, M. (1998). Urban neighborhoods and mental health: Psychological contributions to understanding toxicity, resilience, and interventions. American Psychologist, 53(6), 647–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Weisner, T. S., Bernheimer, L., Espinosa, V., Gibson, C., Howard, E., Magnuson, K., et al. (1999, April). From the living rooms and daily routines of the economically poor: An ethnographic study of the New Hope effects on families and children. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Albuquerque, NM.Google Scholar
  136. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  137. Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  138. Wiltfang, G., & Scarbecz, M. (1990). Social class and adolescents’ self-esteem. Another look. Social Psychology Quarterly, 53, 174–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Kerley, J. H. (1993). The role of children’s future expectations in self-system functioning and adjustment to life stress: A prospective study of urban at-risk children. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 649–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., Raoof, B. A., Gribble, P. A., Parker, G. R., et al. (1992). Interviews with children who experienced major life stress: Family and child attributes that predict resilient outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 904–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Yoshikawa, H., & Seidman, E. (2000). Competence among urban adolescents in poverty: Multiple forms, contexts, and developmental processes. In R. Montemayor, G. R. Adams, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Advances in adolescent development: Adolescent diversity in ethnic, economic, and cultural contexts (Vol. 10, pp. 9–42). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Zelkowitz, P. (1982). Parenting philosophies and practices. In D. Belle (Ed.), Lives in stress: Women and depression (pp. 154–162). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  143. Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Mortimer, J. T. (2006). Adolescent work, vocational development, and education. Review of Educational Research, 76, 537–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. McLoyd, V. C., Kaplan, R., & Purtell, K. (in press). Assessing the effects of a work-based antipoverty program for parents on youth’s future orientation and employment experiences. Child Development.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations