Child Maltreatment within Military Families

  • Deborah A. Gibbs
  • Sandra L. Martin
  • Monique Clinton-Sherrod
  • Jennifer L. Hardison Walters
  • Ruby E. Johnson


Attention to child maltreatment within military families has grown in recent decades in response to the increasing numbers of children in military families, the broader evolution of child maltreatment policy and services, and the development of military policy on issues such as domestic violence. This chapter summarizes current understanding of child maltreatment in the military. Several characteristics of military populations and military life are likely protective with respect to child maltreatment. However, three aspects of military life may increase risks for child maltreatment: elevated rates of domestic violence among military families, increased prevalence of alcohol among service members, and deployment of service member parents.


Intimate Partner Violence Domestic Violence Child Maltreatment Service Member Military Family 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Appel, A. E., & Holden, G. W. (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: A review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(4), 578–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Army Central RegistryGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnes, V. A., Davis, H., & Treiber, F. A. (2007). Perceived stress, heart rate, and blood pressure among adolescents with family members deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Military Medicine, 172(1), 40–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell, N. S., Hanford, T., McCarroll, J. E., & Senier, L. (2004). Drinking and spouse abuse among U.S. Army soldiers. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(12), 1890–1897.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Besinger, B. A., Garland, A. F., Litrownik, A. J., & Landsverk, J. A. (1999). Caregiver substance abuse among maltreated children placed in out-of-home care. Child Welfare, 78(2), 221–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bragg, H. L. (2003). Child protection in families experiencing domestic violence. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children Youth and Families.Google Scholar
  7. Bray, R. M., & Hourani, L. L. (2007). Substance use trends among active duty military personnel: Findings from the United States Department of Defense Health Related Behavior Surveys, 1980–2005 (Vol. 102, pp. 1092–1101). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International.Google Scholar
  8. Bray, R. M., & Marsden, M. E. (2000). Trends in substance use among U.S. military personnel: The impact of changing demographic composition. Substance Abuse & Misuse, 35(6)), 949–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bray, R. M., Marsden, M. E., & Peterson, M. R. (1991). Standardized comparisons of the use of alcohol, drugs and cigarettes among military personnel. American Journal of Public Health, 81(7), 865–869.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brewster, A. L., Milner, J. S., Mollerstrom, W. W., Saha, B. T., & Harris, N. (2002). Evaluation of spouse abuse treatment: Description and evaluation of the air force family advocacy programs for spouse physical abuse. Military Medicine, 167(6), 464–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Castaneda, L. W., Harrell, M. C., Varda, D. M., Hall, K. C., Beckett, M. K., & Stern, S. (2008). Deployment experiences of Guard and Reserve families: Implications for support and retention. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  12. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). America’s families and living arrangements: 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  13. Chaffin, M., Kelleher, K., & Hollenberg, J. (1996). Onset of physical abuse and neglect: Psychiatric, substance abuse, and social risk factors from prospective community data. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20(3), 191–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chartrand, M. M., Frank, D. A., White, L. F., & Shope, T. R. (2008, May 02–06). Effect of parents’ wartime deployment on the behavior of young children in military families. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Pediatric-Academic-Societies/Academic-Pediatric-Association/Society-for-Pediatric-Research National Conference, Honolulu, HI.Google Scholar
  15. Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., & Gibbs, D. (2009). Patterns of referral between FAP and ASAP providers. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International.Google Scholar
  16. Coker, A. L., Smith, P. H., McKeown, R. E., & King, M. J. (2000). Frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type: Physical, sexual, and psychological battering. American Journal of Public Health, 90(4), 553–559.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Congressional Budget Office. (2007). Evaluating military compensation. Washington, DC: The Congress of the United States, Congressional Budget Office.Google Scholar
  18. Cronin, C. (1995). Adolescent reports of parental spousal violence in military and civilian families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Curtis, P. A., & McCullough, C. (1993). The impact of alcohol and other drugs on the child welfare system. Child Welfare, 72(6), 533–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. De Bellis, M. D., Broussard, E. R., Herring, D. J., Wexler, S., Moritz, G., & Benitez, J. G. (2001). Psychiatric co-morbidity in caregivers and children involved in maltreatment: A pilot research study with policy implications. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25(7), 923–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Department of Defense. (1999). Drug and alcohol abuse by DoD personnel: Department of Defense Directive Number 1010.4. Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center.Google Scholar
  22. Department of Defense. (2004). Department of Defense Directive Number 6400.1: Family Advocacy Program (FAP). Retrieved May 15, 2009, from
  23. Department of Defense. (2007). Domestic abuse involving DoD military and certain affiliated personnel: Department of Defense Instruction Number 6400.06. Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center.Google Scholar
  24. Department of the Army. (2006). The Army Family Advocacy Program: Army Regulation 608-18. Washington, DC: Headquarters.Google Scholar
  25. Dong, M., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Williamson, D. F., Thompson, T. J., et al. (2004). The interrelatedness of multiple forms of childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28(7), 771–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dube, S. R., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Croft, J. B., Edwards, V. J., & Giles, W. H. (2001). Growing up with parental alcohol abuse: exposure to childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25(12), 1627–1640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Edleson, J. L. (1999). The overlap between child maltreatment and woman battering. Violence Against Women, 5(2), 134–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Egeland, B., & Brunnquell, D. (1979). At-risk approach to the study of child abuse – Some preliminary findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 18(2), 219–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. English, D. J., Marshall, D. B., Brummel, S., & Orme, M. (1999). Characteristics of repeated referrals to child protective services in Washington State. Child Maltreatment, 4(4), 297–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fals-Stewart, W., O’Farrell, T. J., Birchler, G. R., Cordova, J., & Kelley, M. L. (2005). Behavioral couples therapy for alcoholism and drug abuse: Where we’ve been, where we are, and where we’re going. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 19(3), 229–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Famularo, R., Kinscherff, R., & Fenton, T. (1992). Parental substance abuse and the nature of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16(4), 475–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Findlater, J., & Kelly, S. (1999). Child protective services and domestic violence. The Future of Children, 9(3), 84–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Flake, E. M., Davis, B. E., Johnson, P. L., & Middleton, L. S. (2009). The psychosocial effects of deployment on military children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 30(4), 271–278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fonseca, C. A., Schmaling, K. B., Stoever, C., Gutierrez, C., Blume, A. W., & Russell, M. L. (2006). Variables associated with intimate partner violence in a deploying military sample. Military Medicine, 171(7), 627–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gessner, R. R., & Runyan, D. K. (1995). The shaken infant – A military connection. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 149(4), 467–469.Google Scholar
  36. Gibbs, D. A., Martin, S. M., Johnson, R. E., Rentz, E. D., Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., & Hardison, J. (2008). Child maltreatment and substance use among U.S. Army soldiers. Child Maltreatment, 13(3), 259–268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gibbs, D. A., Martin, S. M., Kupper, L. L., & Johnson, R. E. (2007). Child maltreatment by civilian parents during military deployment of their spouses. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(5), 528–535.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Goldman, J., Salus, M. K., Woldott, D., & Kennedy, K. Y. (2003). A coordinated response to child abuse and neglect: The foundation for practice. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.Google Scholar
  39. Haas, D., Pazdernik, L., & Olsen, C. (2005). A cross-sectional survey of the relationship between partner deployment and stress in pregnancy during wartime. Womens Health Issues, 15(2), 48–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Haller, D., & Miles, D. (2003). Victimization and perpetration among perinatal substance abusers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(7), 760–780.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hardison Walters, J. L., Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., Gibbs, D., & Martin, S. L. (2008). Addressing co-occurring family violence and substance abuse: A survey of Army clinical directors and service providers. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International.Google Scholar
  42. Hazen, A. L., Connelly, C. D., Kelleher, K., Landsverk, J., & Barth, R. (2004). Intimate partner violence among female caregivers of children reported for child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28(3), 301–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Herrenkohl, T. I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E. A., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Moylan, C. A. (2008). Intersection of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 9(2), 84–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heyman, R. E., & Neidig, P. H. (1999). A comparison of spousal aggression prevalence rates in U.S. Army and civilian representative samples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 97(2), 239–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heyman, R. E., & Slep, A. M. S. (2002). Do child abuse and interparental violence lead to adulthood family violence? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 64(4), 864–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Holt, S., Buckley, H., & Whelan, S. (2008). The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: A review of the literature. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(8), 797–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hosek, J., Kavanagh, J., & Miller, L. (2006). How deployments affect service members. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  48. ICF International. (2007). Demographics 2007: Profile of the military community. Published by the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Military Community and Family Policy), under contract with ICF International. Retrieved 2010, from
  49. Jaudes, P. K., Ekwo, E., & Van Voorhis, J. (1995). Association of drug abuse and child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(9), 1065–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jensen, P. S., Grogan, D., Xenakis, S. N., & Bain, M. W. (1989). Father absence – Effects on child and maternal psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28(2), 171–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Jensen, P. S., Martin, D., & Watanabe, H. (1996). Children’s response to parental separation during Operation Desert Storm. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(4), 433–441.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jensen, P. S., Xenakis, S., & Wolf, P. (1991). The “military family” syndrome revisited. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179, 102–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Jordan, B. K., Marmar, C. R., Fairbank, J. A., & Schlenger, W. E. (1992). Problems in families of male Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(6), 916–926.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kelleher, K., Chaffin, M., Hollenberg, J., & Fischer, E. (1994). Alcohol and drug disorders among physically abusive and neglectful parents in a community-based sample. American Journal of Public Health, 84(10), 1586–1590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kelley, M. L. (1994). The effects of military-induced separation on family factors and child-behavior. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64(1), 103–111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kelley, M. L., Hock, E., Smith, K. M., Jarvis, M. S., Bonney, J. F., & Gaffney, M. A. (2001). Internalizing and externalizing behavior of children with enlisted navy mothers experiencing military-induced separation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(4), 464–471.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Leonard, K. (2002). Alcohol and substance abuse in marital violence and child maltreatment. In C. Wekerle & A. Wall (Eds.), The violence and addiction equation: Theoretical and clinical issues in substance abuse and relationship violence (pp. 194–219). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  58. Leonard, K. E., & Eiden, R. D. (2007). Marital and family processes in the context of alcohol use and alcohol disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 285–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lung, C. T., & Daro, D. (1996). Current trends in child abuse reporting and fatalities: The results of the 1995 annual fifty state survey. Chicago: National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse.Google Scholar
  60. Magura, S., & Laudet, A. B. (1996). Parental substance abuse and child maltreatment: Review and implications for intervention. Children and Youth Services Review, 18(3), 193–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martin, S. L., Gibbs, D. A., Johnson, R. E., Rentz, E. D., Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., Hardison, J. L., et al. (2009). Male soldier family violence offenders: Spouse and child offenders compared to child offenders. Violence and Victims, 24(4), 458–468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Martin, S. M., Gibbs, D. A., Sulliven, K., Rentz, E. D., Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., & Hardison Walters, J. L. (In press). Substance use by soldiers who abuse their spouses. Violence Against Women, 24(4), 459–468.Google Scholar
  63. McCarroll, J. E., Fan, Z., & Bell, N. S. (2009). Alcohol use in nonmutual and mutual domestic violence in the U.S. Army: 1998–2004. Violence and Victims, 24(3), 364–378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. McCarroll, J. E., Fan, Z., Newby, J. H., & Ursano, R. J. (2008). Trends in U.S. army child maltreatment reports: 1990–2004. Child Abuse Review, 17(2), 108–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McCarroll, J. E., Ursano, R. J., Fan, Z. Z., & Newby, J. H. (2004). Comparison of U.S. army and civilian substantiated reports of child maltreatment. Child Maltreatment, 9(1), 103–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. McCarroll, J. E., Ursano, R. J., Liu, X., Thayer, L. E., Newby, J. H., Norwood, A. E., et al. (2000). Deployment and the probability of spousal aggression by U.S. Army soldiers. Military Medicine, 165(1), 41–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. McDonald, T. P. (1990). Recurrence of abuse in relation to assessed risks. Washington, DC: National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect Symposium on Risk Assessment in Child Protective Services.Google Scholar
  68. McNulty, P. A. F. (2003). Does deployment impact the health care use of military families stationed in Okinawa, Japan? Military Medicine, 168(6), 465–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Merrill, L. L., Crouch, J. L., Thomsen, C. J., & Guimond, J. M. (2004). Risk for intimate partner violence and child physical abuse: Psychosocial characteristics of multirisk male and female Navy recruits. Child Maltreatment, 9(1), 18–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Merrill, L. L., Hervig, L. K., & Milner, J. S. (1996). Childhood parenting experiences, intimate partner conflict resolution, and adult risk for child physical abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20(11), 1049–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Milliken, C. S., Auchterlonie, J. L., & Hoge, C. W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq war. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(18), 2141–2148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. (1999). No safe haven: Children of substance-abusing parents. New York, NY: The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University.Google Scholar
  73. National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges. (1999). Effective intervention in domestic violence and child maltreatment cases: Guidelines for policy and practice. Reno, NV: National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges.Google Scholar
  74. North Carolina Child Advocacy Institute. (2004). Reducing collateral damage on the home front: Child abuse fatalities within military families and communities in North Carolina: Facts and recommendations. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Child Advocacy Institute.Google Scholar
  75. Pan, H. S., Neidig, P. H., & Oleary, K. D. (1994). Predicting mild and severe husband-to-wife physical aggression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(5), 975–981.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Raiha, N. K., & Soma, D. J. (1997). Victims of child abuse and neglect in the U.S. Army. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21(8), 759–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rentz, E. D., Marshall, S. W., Loomis, D., Martin, S. L., Casteel, C., & Gibbs, D. (2007). Effect of deployment on the occurrence of child maltreatment in military and non-military families. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165(10), 1199–1206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rentz, E. D., Martin, S. L., Gibbs, D. A., Clinton-Sherrod, M., Hardison, J., & Marshall, S. W. (2006). Family violence in the military: A review of the literature. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 7(2), 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rosen, L. N. (1995). Life events and symptomatic recovery of Army spouses following Operation Desert Storm. Behavioral Medicine, 21(3), 131–139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rosen, L. N., Durand, D. B., & Martin, J. A. (2000). Wartime stress and family adaptation. In J. A. Martin, L. N. Rosen, & L. R. Sparacino (Eds.), The military family: A practice guide for human service providers (pp. 123–138). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  81. Rosen, L. N., Kaminski, R. J., Parmley, A. M., Knudson, K. H., & Fancher, P. (2003). The effects of peer group climate on intimate partner violence among married male U.S. army soldiers. Violence Against Women, 9(9), 1045–1071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rosen, L. N., & Martin, L. (1996). Impact of childhood abuse history on psychological symptoms among male and female soldiers in the U.S. Army. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20(12), 1149–1160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rosen, L. N., Parmley, A. M., Knudson, K. H., & Fancher, P. (2002). Gender differences in the experience of intimate partner violence among active duty U.S. Army soldiers. Military Medicine, 167(12), 959–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rosen, L. N., Teitelbaum, J. M., & Westhuis, D. J. (1993). Childrens’ reactions to the Desert-Storm deployment – Initial findings from a survey of army families. Military Medicine, 158(7), 465–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rosenthal, L., & McDonald, S. (2003). Seeking justice: A review of the second report of the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women, 9(9), 1153–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ross, S. M. (1996). Risk of physical abuse to children of spouse abusing parents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20(7), 589–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rumm, P. D., Cummings, P., Krauss, M. R., Bell, M. A., & Rivara, F. P. (2000). Identified spouse abuse as a risk factor for child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(11), 1375–1381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schumm, W. R., Bell, D. B., & Gade, P. A. (2000). Effects of military overseas peacekeeping deployment on marital quality, satisfaction, and stability. Psychological Reports, 87, 815–821.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sedlak, A. J., & Broadhurst, D. D. (1996). The third national incidence study of child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.Google Scholar
  90. Segal, D. R., & Segal, M. W. (2004). America’s military population. Population Bulletin, 59(4), 1–41.Google Scholar
  91. Semidei, J., Radel, L. F., & Nolan, C. (2001). Substance abuse and child welfare: Clear linkages and promising responses. Child Welfare, 80(2), 109–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Sprang, G., Clark, J. J., & Bass, S. (2005). Factors that contribute to child maltreatment severity: A multi-method and multidimensional investigation. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(4), 335–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Strauss, M. A., Gelles, R. J., & Steinmetz, S. K. (1980). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  94. Strauss, M. A., Gelles, R. J., & Steinmetz, S. K. (1990). Physical violence in the American family. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  95. Tanielian, T. L., Jaycox, L. H., Schell, T. L., Marshall, G. N., Burnam, M. A., Ibner, C. E., et al. (2008). Invisible wounds of war: Psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Arlington, VA: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  96. Taylor, C. A., Guterman, N. B., Lee, S. J., & Rathouz, P. J. (2009). Intimate partner violence, maternal stress, nativity, and risk for maternal maltreatment of young children. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1), 175–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Blending perspectives and building common ground: A report to Congress on substance abuse and child protection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  98. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2009). Child maltreatment 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  99. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. (1993). A report to Congress: Study of child maltreatment in alcohol abusing families. Washington, DC: HHS National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.Google Scholar
  100. Walsh, C., MacMillan, H. L., & Jamieson, E. (2003). The relationship between parental substance abuse and child abuse: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(12), 1409–1425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deborah A. Gibbs
    • 1
  • Sandra L. Martin
  • Monique Clinton-Sherrod
  • Jennifer L. Hardison Walters
  • Ruby E. Johnson
  1. 1.Division for Health Services and Social Policy ResearchRTI InternationalResearch Triangle ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations