Trauma, PTSD, and Partner Violence in Military Families

  • Casey T. Taft
  • Sherry M. Walling
  • Jamie M. Howard
  • Candice Monson


Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem in the United States that may be particularly elevated among military populations exposed to trauma who evidence symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As this chapter illustrates, evidence indicates that the development of posttraumatic psychopathology, and particularly PTSD, is strongly associated with the development of violence and abusive behavior in relationships. In addition to the review of research on the association between PTSD and IPV in military populations, in this chapter we discuss information processing models explaining the link between PTSD and IPV and potential moderators of this association, as well as strategies to prevent and treat IPV in this population. Recommendations for future work in this area of investigation and program development are also provided.


Traumatic Brain Injury Intimate Partner Violence Ptsd Symptom Service Member Social Information Processing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adams, R. E., Boscarino, J. A., & Galea, S. (2006). Alcohol use, mental health status and psychological well-being 2 years after the World Trade Center attacks in New York City. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 32(2), 203–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. Revised). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. Anglin, K., & Holtzworth-Munroe, A. (1997). Comparing the responses of maritally violent and nonviolent spouses to problematic marital and nonmarital situations: Are the skill deficits of physically aggressive husbands and wives global? Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 301–313.Google Scholar
  4. Babcock, J. C., Green, C. E., & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers’ treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1023–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Back, S. E., Jackson, J. L., Sonne, S., & Brady, K. T. (2005). Alcohol dependence and PTSD: Differences in clinical presentation and response to cognitive-behavioral therapy by order of onset. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 29, 29–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berkowitz, L. (1994). Is something missing? Some observations prompted by the cognitive-neoassociationist view of anger and emotional aggression. In L. R. Huesmann (Ed.), Aggressive behavior: Current perspectives (pp. 35–57). New York, NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
  7. Bohannon, J. R., Dosser, D. A., & Lindley, S. E. (1995). Using couple data to determine domestic violence rates: an attempt to replicate previous work. Violence and Victims, 10(2), 133–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Boscarino, J. A. (2006). External-cause mortality after psychologic trauma: The effects of stress exposure and predisposition. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 47, 503–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradley, C. (2007). Veteran status and marital aggression: Does military service make a difference? Journal of Family Violence, 22(4), 197–209.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, P. J., & Wolfe, J. (1994). Substance abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder comorbidity. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 35, 51–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Byrne, C. A., & Riggs, D. S. (1996). The cycle of trauma: Relationship aggression in male Vietnam veterans with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Violence and Victims, 11, 213–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cantos, A., Neidig, P. H., & O’Leary, K. D. (1994). Injuries of women and men in a treatment program for domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 9(2), 113–124.Google Scholar
  13. Cascardi, M., & Vivian, D. (1995). Context for specific episodes of marital violence: Gender and severity of violence differences. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 265–293.Google Scholar
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2003). Costs of intimate partner violence against women in the United States. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  15. Chambers, C. D., Bellgrove, M. A., Gould, I. C., English, T., Garavan, H., et al. (2007). Dissociable mechanisms of cognitive control in prefrontal and premotor cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 98, 3638–3647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chang, H., & Saunders, D. G. (2002). Predictors of attrition in two types of group programs for men who batter. Journal of Family Violence, 17, 273–292.Google Scholar
  17. Chemtob, C. M., Novaco, R. W., Hamada, R. S., & Gross, D. M. (1997a). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for severe anger in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 184–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chemtob, C. M., Novaco, R. W., Hamada, R. S., Gross, D. M., & Smith, G. (1997b). Anger regulation deficits in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10, 17–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen, R. A., Rosenbaum, A., Kane, R. L., Warnken, W. J., & Benjamin, S. (1999). Neuropsychological correlates of domestic violence. Violence and Victims, 14, 397–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen, R. A., Brumm, V., Zawacki, T. M., Paul, R., Sweet, L., & Rosenbaum, A. (2003). Impulsivity and verbal deficits associated with domestic violence. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 760–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Coker, A. L., Davis, K. E., Arias, I., Desai, S., Sanderson, M., et al. (2002). Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(4), 260–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Constans, J. (2005). Information processing biases in PTSD. In J. J. Vasterling & C. R. Brewin (Eds.), Neuropsychology of PTSD: Biological, cognitive, and clinical perspectives (pp. 105–130). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. Dunford, F. W. (2000). The San Diego Navy Experiment: An assessment of interventions for men who assault their wives. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 468–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dutton, D. G. (1998). The abusive personality. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  25. Dutton, D. G., Van Ginkel, C., & Starzomski, A. (1995). The role of shame and guilt in the intergenerational transmission of abusiveness. Violence and Victims, 10, 121–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Eckhardt, C. I. (2007). Effects of alcohol intoxication on anger experience and expression among partner assaultive men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 61–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Eckhardt, C. I., Barbour, K. A., & Davison, G. C. (1998). Articulated thoughts of maritally violent and nonviolent men during anger arousal. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 259–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Eckhardt, C. I., & Kassinove, H. (1998). Articulated cognitive distortions and cognitive deficiencies in maritally violent men. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 12, 231–250.Google Scholar
  29. Eckhardt, C., & Jamison, T. R. (2002). Articulated thoughts of male dating violence perpetrators during anger arousal. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 289–308.Google Scholar
  30. Ehrensaft, M. K., Cohen, P., Brown, J., Smailes, E., Chen, H., & Johnson, J. G. (2003). Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: A 20-year prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(4), 741–753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ellsberg, M., Jansen, H. A. F. M., Heise, L., Watts, C. H., & Garcia-Moreno, C. (2008). Intimate partner violence and women’s physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence: An observational study. Lancet, 371, 1165–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Erickson, D., Wolfe, J., King, D., King, L., & Sharkansky, E. (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptomatology in a sample of Gulf War veterans: a prospective analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 41–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Finkelhor, D., & Browne, A. (1985). The traumatic impact of child sexual abuse: A conceptualization. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 55, 530–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gal, R. (1986). Unit morale: From a theoretical puzzle to an empirical illustration: An Israeli example. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16, 549–564.Google Scholar
  35. Gerlock, A. (1999). Health impact of domestic violence. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 20, 373–385.Google Scholar
  36. Gerlock, A. A. (2001). Relationship mutuality: Why is it important in batterers’ rehabilitation? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, 768–783.Google Scholar
  37. Giancola, P. R. (2000). Executive functioning: A conceptual framework for alcohol-related aggression. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8(4), 576–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Glenn, D. M., Beckham, J. C., Feldman, M. E., Kirby, A. C., Hertzberg, M. A., & Moore, S. D. (2002). Violence and hostility among families of Vietnam veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Violence and Victims, 17, 473–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gold, J. I., Keehn, M. G., King, D. W., King, L., & Samper, R. (2007). PTSD symptom severity and family adjustment among female Vietnam veterans. Military Psychology, 19, 71–81.Google Scholar
  40. Heyman, R. E., & Neidig, P. H. (1999). A comparison of spousal aggression prevalence rates in U.S. Army and civilian representative samples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 239–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hiley-Young, B., Blake, D. D., Abueg, F. R., Rozynko, V., & Gusman, F. D. (1995). Warzone violence in Vietnam: An examination of premilitary, military, and postmilitary factors in PTSD in-patients. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(1), 125–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hoge, C. W., Castro, C. A., Messer, S. C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D. I., & Koffman, R. L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. The New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 13–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hoge, C. W., McGurk, D., Thomas, J., Cox, A. L., Engel, C. C., & Castro, C. A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in US soldiers returning from Iraq. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 453–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Holtzworth-Munroe, A. (1992). Social skills deficits in maritally violent men: Interpreting the data using a social information processing model. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 605–617.Google Scholar
  45. Holtzworth-Munroe, A., & Anglin, A. (1991). The competency of responses given by martially violent versus nonviolent men to problematic marital situations. Violence and Victims, 6, 257–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Holtzworth-Munroe, A., Meehan, J. C., Herron, K., Rehman, U., & Stuart, G. L. (2000). Testing the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) batterer typology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 1000–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hyer, L., Leach, P., Boudewyns, P. A., & Davis, H. (1991). Hidden PTSD in substance abuse inpatients among Vietnam veterans. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 8(4), 213–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Jacobsen, L. K., Southwick, S. M., & Kosten, T. R. (2001). Substance use disorders in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the literature. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1184–1190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jordan, K. B., Marmar, C. R., Fairbank, J. A., Schlenger, W. E., Kulka, R. A., Hough, R. L., et al. (1992). Problems in families of male Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 916–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kallstrom-Fuqua, A. C., Weston, R., & Marshall, L. L. (2004). Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse of community women: mediated effects on psychological distress and social relationships. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(6), 980–992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kelley, M. L., Hock, E., Jarvis, M. S., Smith, K. M., Gaffney, M. A., & Bonney, J. F. (2002). Psychological adjustment of Navy mothers experiencing deployment. Military Psychology, 14, 199–216.Google Scholar
  52. Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kitzmann, K. M., Gaylord, N. K., Holt, A. R., & Kenny, E. D. (2003). Child witnesses to domestic violence: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 339–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Knight, J. A., & Taft, C. T. (2004). Assessing neuropsychological concomitants of trauma and PTSD. In J. P. Wilson & T. M. Keane (Eds.), Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (2nd ed., pp. 344–388). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  55. Kulka, R. A., Schlenger, W. E., Fairbank, J. A., Hough, R. L., Jordan, B. K., Marmar, C. R., et al. (1990). Trauma and the Vietnam war generation: Report of findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  56. Margolin, G. (1998). Effects of domestic violence on children. In P. Trickett & C. Schellenbach (Eds.), Violence against children in the family and the community (pp. 57–101). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  57. Markman, H. J., Renick, M. J., Floyd, J., Stanley, S. M., & Clements, M. (1993). Preventing marital distress through communication and conflict management training: A 4- and 5-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 70–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Marsh, N. V., & Martinovich, W. M. (2006). Executive dysfunction and domestic violence. Brain Injury, 20, 61–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Marshall, A. D., Panuzio, J., & Taft, C. T. (2005). Intimate partner violence among military veterans and active duty servicemen. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 862–876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Max, W., Rice, D. P., Finkelstein, E., Bardwell, R. A., & Leadbetter, S. (2004). The economic toll of intimate partner violence against women in the United States. Violence and Victims, 19, 259–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. McFall, R. M. (1982). A review and reformulation of the concept of social skills. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 1–33.Google Scholar
  62. Miller, M. W., Kaloupek, D. G., Dillon, A. L., & Keane, T. M. (2004). Externalizing and internalizing subtypes of combat-related PTSD: A replication and extension using the PSY-5 scales. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(4), 636–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Milliken, C. S., Auchterlonie, J. L., & Hoge, C. W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq war. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(18), 2141–2148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Monson, C. M., Schnurr, P. P., Resick, P. A., Friedman, M. J., Young-Xu, Y., & Stevens, S. P. (2006). Cognitive processing therapy for veterans with military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 898–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Morrel, T. M., Elliott, J. D., Murphy, C. M., & Taft, C. T. (2003). A comparison of cognitive-behavioral and supportive group therapies for male perpetrators of domestic abuse. Behavior Therapy, 34, 77–95.Google Scholar
  66. Murphy, C. M., & O’Leary, K. D. (1989). Psychological aggression predicts physical aggression in early marriage. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 579–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Murphy, C. M., & Cascardi, M. (1999). Psychological aggression and abuse in marriage. In R. Hampton (Ed.), Family violence: Prevention and treatment (2nd ed., pp. 198–226). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  68. Murphy, C. M., O’Farrell, T. J., Fals-Stewart, W., & Feehan, M. (2001). Correlates of intimate partner violence among male alcoholic patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(3), 528–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Murphy, C. M., & Eckhardt, C. I. (2005). Treating the abusive partner: An individualized cognitive-behavioral approach. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  70. Novaco, R. W., & Chemtob, C. M. (1998). Anger and trauma: Conceptualization, assessment, and treatment. In V. M. Follette, J. I. Ruzek, & F. R. Abueg (Eds.), Cognitive behavioral therapies for trauma (pp. 162–190). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  71. O’Donnell, C., Cook, J. M., Thompson, R., Riley, K., & Neria, Y. (2006). Verbal and physical aggression in World War II former prisoners of war: Role of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(6), 859–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. O’Leary, K. D., Heyman, R. E., & Neidig, P. H. (1999). Treatment of wife abuse: A comparison of gender-specific and couples approaches. Behavior Therapy, 30, 475–505.Google Scholar
  73. O’Leary, K. D., Malone, J., & Tyree, A. (1994). Physical aggression in early marriage: Prerelationship and relationship effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 594–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. O’Leary, K. D., Woodin, E. M., & Fritz, P. A. T. (2006). Can we prevent hitting? Recommendations for preventing intimate partner violence between young adults. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 13, 121–178.Google Scholar
  75. Orcutt, H. K., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (2003). Male-Perpetrated violence among Vietnam veteran couples: Relationships with veteran’s early life characteristics, trauma history, and PTSD symptomatology. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16, 381–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Orsillo, S. M., Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., Steinberg, H. R., Huska, J. A., & Keane, T. M. (1996). Current and lifetime psychiatric disorders among veterans with war zone-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 307–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Pan, H. S., Neidig, P. H., & O’Leary, K. D. (1994). Predicting mild and severe husband-to-wife physical aggression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 975–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Pence, E., & Paymar, M. (1993). Education groups for men who batter: The Duluth model. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  79. Pierce, P. F. (1998). Retention of Air Force women serving during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Military Psychology, 10, 195–213.Google Scholar
  80. Raschmann, J. K., Patterson, J. C., & Schofield, G. (1990). A retrospective study of marital discord in pilots: The USAFSAM experience. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 61, 1145–1148.Google Scholar
  81. Resick, P. A., & Schnicke, M. K. (1992). Cognitive processing therapy for sexual assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 748–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Riggs, D. S., Byrne, C. A., Weathers, F. W., & Litz, B. T. (1998). The quality of the intimate relationships of male Vietnam veterans: Problems associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 87–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Rivara, F. P., Anderson, M. L., Fishman, P., Bonomi, A. E., Reid, R. J., Carrell, D., et al. (2007). Healthcare utilization and costs for women with a history of intimate partner violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32, 89–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rosenbaum, A., & Hoge, S. K. (1989). Head injury and marital aggression. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1048–1051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rosenbaum, A., Hoge, S. K., Adelman, S. A., Warnken, W. J., Fletcher, K. E., & Kane, R. L. (1994). Head injury in partner-abusive men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1187–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Rosenbaum, A., & Leisring, P. A. (2003). Beyond power and control: Towards an understanding of partner abusive men. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 34, 7–22.Google Scholar
  87. Rumm, P. D., Cummings, P., Krauss, M. R., Bell, M. A., & Rivara, F. P. (2000). Identified spouse abuse as a risk factor for child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(11), 1375–1381.Google Scholar
  88. Saunders, D. G. (1996). Feminist-cognitive-behavioral and process-psychodynamic treatments for men who batter: Interaction of abuser traits and treatment models. Violence and Victims, 11, 393–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Savarese, V. W., Suvak, M. K., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (2001). Relationships among alcohol use, hyperarousal, and marital abuse and violence in Vietnam veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14(4), 717–732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Schnurr, P. P., & Green, B. L. (2004). Understanding relationships among trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and health outcomes. In P. P. Schnurr & B. L. Green (Eds.), Trauma and health: Physical health consequences of exposure to extreme stress (pp. 217–243). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  91. Schumm, W. R., Bell, D. B., & Resnick, G. (2001). Recent research on family factors and readiness: Implications for military leaders. Psychological Reports, 89(1), 153–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Schwartz, J. P., Waldo, M., & Daniel, D. (2005). Gender-role conflict and self-esteem: Factors associated with partner abuse in court-referred men. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 6, 109–113.Google Scholar
  93. Scott, K. L., & Wolfe, D. A. (2000). What works in the treatment of batterers. In M. P. Kluger, G. Alexander, & P. A. Curtis (Eds.), What works in child welfare (pp. 105–111). Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.Google Scholar
  94. Segal, D. R., Rohall, D. E., Jones, J. C., & Manos, A. M. (1999). Meeting the missions of the 1990s with a downsized force: Human resource management lessons from the deployment of PATRIOT missile units to Korea. Military Psychology, 11, 149–167.Google Scholar
  95. Siever, L. J. (2008). Neurobiology of aggression and violence. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 429–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Sherman, M. D., Sautter, F., Jackson, H. M., Lyons, J. A., & Han, X. (2006). Domestic violence in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder who seek couples therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 32(4), 479–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Snyder, A. I. (1978). Periodic marital separation and physical illness. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 48, 637–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Stein, M. B., & Kennedy, C. (2001). Major depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder comorbidity in female victims of intimate partner violence. Journal of Affective Disorders, 66, 133–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Stewart, S. H., & Conrod, P. J. (2003). Psychosocial models of functional associations. In P. C. Ouimette & P. J. Brown (Eds.), PTSD and substance use disorder comorbidity: Advances and challenges in research and practice. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Press.Google Scholar
  100. Street, A. E., King, L. A., King, D. W., & Riggs, D. S. (2003). The Associations among male-perpetrated partner violence, wives’ psychological distress and children’s behavior problems: A structural equation modeling analysis. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 34(1), 23–40.Google Scholar
  101. Taft, C. T., Pless, A. P., Stalans, L. J., Koenen, K. C., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (2005). Risk factors for partner violence among a national sample of combat veterans. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 151–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Taft, C. T., Kaloupek, D. G., Schumm, J. A., Marshall, A. D., Panuzio, J., King, D. W., et al. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, physiological reactivity, alcohol problems, and aggression among military veterans. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 498–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Taft, C. T., Street, A. E., Marshall, A. D., Dowdall, D. J., & Riggs, D. S. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder, anger, and partner abuse among Vietnam combat veterans. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 270–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Taft, C. T., Vogt, D. S., Marshall, A. D., Panuzio, J., & Niles, B. D. (2007). Aggression among combat veterans: Relationships with combat exposure and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, dysphoria, and anxiety. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 135–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Taft, C. T., Schumm, J. A., Marshall, A. D., Panuzio, J., & Holtzworth-Munroe, A. (2008). Family-of-origin maltreatment, PTSD symptoms, social information processing deficits, and relationship abuse perpetration. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 637–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Taft, C. T., Watkins, L. E., Stafford, J., Street, A., E., & Monson, C. M. (in press). Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate relationship functioning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.Google Scholar
  107. Tanielian, T., & Jaycox, L. X. (2008). Invisible wounds of war: Psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.Google Scholar
  108. Teten, A. L., Sherman, M. D., & Han, X. (2009). Violence between therapy-seeking veterans and their partners. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(1), 111–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2000). Full report of the prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. (NCJ Publication No. 183781). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  110. Vinokur, A. D., Pierce, P. F., & Buck, C. L. (1999). Work-family conflicts of women in the Air Force: Their influence on mental health and functioning. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 865–878.Google Scholar
  111. Warnken, W. J., Rosenbaum, A., Fletcher, K. E., Hoge, S. K., & Adelman, S. A. (1994). Head-injured males: A population at risk for relationship aggression? Violence and Victims, 9, 153–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Yehuda, R. (Ed.). (2006). Psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorders: A decade of progress (Vol. 1071). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Casey T. Taft
    • 1
  • Sherry M. Walling
  • Jamie M. Howard
  • Candice Monson
  1. 1.National Center for PTSDVA Boston Healthcare System and Boston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations