Advertisement

Sports, Hormones, and Doping in Children and Adolescents

  • Alan D. Rogol
Chapter
Part of the Endocrine Updates book series (ENDO, volume 29)

Abstract

Can one grow more rapidly during childhood and early adolescence and to a taller than genetically programmed adult height or to a more robust body composition given anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), human growth hormone (rhGH), insulin-like growth factor (rhIGF-I), insulin, or erythropoietin? Does growth in these dimensions permit an adolescent to reach his/her athletic goals increased performance whether faster (citius) in many events, higher (altius) in jumping events, and stronger (fortius)? Why would one consider that possible? The more successful late childhood and early adolescent age athletes are often more physically mature than their age-peers.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Anabolic Steroid Pubertal Development Adult Height Athletic Performance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Malina RM, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O. The young athlete. In: Malina RM, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O, editors. Growth, Maturation and Physical Activity, 2nd edition. Human Kinetics Press, Champaign, IL, 2004, pp 623–49.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tanner JM. Growth at Adolescence. Springfield, Charles C. Thomas, 1962.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zachmann M, Prader A, Kind HP, et al. Testicular volume during adolescence: cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Helv Paediatr Acta. 1974; 29:61–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH, Marubini E, Resele LF. The adolescent growth spurt of boys and girls of the Harpenden growth study. Ann Hum Biol. 1976; 3:109–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Largo RH. Analysis of the adolescent growth spurt using smoothing spline function. Ann Hum Biol. 1978; 5:421–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Greulich WS, Pyle SI. Radiograph Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Veldhuis JD, Roemmich JN, Richmind EJ, et al. Endocrine control of body composition in infancy, childhood, and puberty. Endocr Rev. 2005; 26:114–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Albertsson-Wikland K, Rosberg S, Lannering B, et al. Twenty-four-hour profiles of luetinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, and estradiol levels: a semi-longitudinal study throughout puberty in healthy boys. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997; 82:541–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Knobil E. The neuroendocrine control of the menstrual cycle. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1980; 36:53–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Knorr D. Plasma testosterone in male puberty. 1. Physiology of plasma testosterone. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1974; 75:181–94.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Melmed S, Klineberg D. Anterior pituitary. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, editors. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 11th edition. Sanders (Elsevier), New York, 2008, pp 155–261.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roemmich, JN, Huerta MG, Sundaresan SM, Rogol AD. Alterations in body composition and fat distribution in growth hormone deficient prepubertal children during growth hormone therapy. Metabolism. 2001; 50:537–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holland-Hall C. Performance-enhancing substances: is your adolescent patient using? Pediatr Clin N Am. 2007; 54:651–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. Use of performance-enhancing substances. Pediatrics. 2005; 115:1103–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carpenter PC. Performance-enhancing drugs in sport. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2007; 36:481–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Castillo EM, Comstock RD. Prevalence of use of performance-enhancing substances among United States adolescents. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2007; 54:66375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smurawa TM, Congeni JA. Testosterone precursors: use and abuse in pediatric athletes. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2007; 54:787–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zitzmann M, Nieschlag E. The CAG repeat polymorphism within the androgen receptor gene and maleness. Int J Androl. 2003; 26:76–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    Liu H, Bravata DM, Okin I, et al. Systematic review: the effects of growth hormone on athletic performance. Ann Int Med. 2008; 144:747–58.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Richmond EJ, Rogol AD. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I therapy for children with growth disorders. Adv Ther. 2008; 25:1276–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thomas A, Thevis M, Delahaut P, et al. Mass spectrometric identification of degradation products of insulin and its long-acting analogues in human urine for doping control purposes. Anal Chem. 2007; 79:2518–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Elliott S. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and other methods to enhance oxygen transport. Brit J Pharmacol. 2008; 154:529–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Macdougall IC. Hematide, a novel peptide-based erythopoiesis-stimulating agent for the treatment of anemia. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2008; 9:1034–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Topf JM. CERA: third generation erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008; 9:839–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bunn HF. New agents that stimulate erythropoiesis. Blood. 2007; 109:868–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barton-Davis ER, Shoturma DI, Musaro A, et al. Viral mediated expression of insulin-like growth factor I blocks the aging-related loss of skeletal muscle function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998; 95:15603–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wells DJ. Gene doping: the hype and the reality. Brit J Pharmacol. 2008; 154:623–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goldspink G, Yang SY, Hameed M, et al. The role of MGF and other IGF-I splice variants in muscle maintenance and hypertrophy. In: Kraemer WJ and Rogol AD, editors. The Endocrine System in Sports and Exercise. Vol XI, The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine, an IOC Medical Commission Publication. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, 2005, pp 180–93.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Joulia-Ekaza D, Cabello G. The myostatin gene: physiology and pharmacological relevance. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2007; 7:310–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kraemer DK, Ahlsen M, Norrbom J, et al. Human skeletal muscle fibre type variations correlate with PPAR alpha, PPAR delta and PGC-1 alpha mRNA. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2007; 188:207–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang YX, Zhang CL, Yu RT, et al. Regulation of muscle fiber type and running endurance by PPARdelta. PLoS Biol. 2004; 2:e294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Riley Hospital for ChildrenIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations