• Sandhya A. Lagoo-Deenadayalan
  • Danny O. Jacobs


Throughout most of adult life, our bodies maintain near-­perfect metabolic balance interrupted only by disease. This equilibrium lasts a finite period – until the inevitable aging process begins. Aging is a complex phenomenon that includes molecular, cellular, physiologic, and psychological changes. Individual aging is influenced primarily by a person’s genetic makeup, lifestyle, and environment. Of these factors, the first is predetermined and constant; the other two are optional, variable, and therefore modifiable. Some very old individuals can stay healthy and have a good nutritional status [1, 2], but physiologic decline and health problems are expected for most of us before death. Aging of cellular function results in a natural decline in physiologic performance and reserve capacity. Thus elderly individuals have increased susceptibility and are less resistant to illness [3].


Lean Body Mass Enteral Nutrition Total Parenteral Nutrition Basal Metabolic Rate Pressure Ulcer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandhya A. Lagoo-Deenadayalan
    • 1
  • Danny O. Jacobs
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryDuke University HospitalDurhamUSA

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