Invited Commentary

  • Timothy J. Gardner


Cardiovascular illnesses in the elderly are, in many respects, a natural consequence of aging. The aging process is associated with degeneration of organs and their functions, including the brain, heart, musculoskeletal system, and vascular system. Cardiovascular illnesses, such as ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and congestive heart failure can be expected to occur in some form or other as we age; and nearly everyone who survives into their eighties has evidence of cardiovascular pathology. It is interesting that when questioned about their preferred mode of demise, many older people indicate that they would choose to sustain a sudden fatal cardiac event over such unpleasant terminal illnesses as cancer, stroke, dementia, or other afflictions of the elderly.


Peripheral Vascular Disease Aortic Valve Stenosis Cardiovascular Condition Cardiovascular Pathology Coronary Bypass Grafting 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Heart and Vascular Health, Christiana Health Care SystemNewarkUSA

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