Advertisement

Anatomic and Physiologic Changes in the Ears, Nose, and Throat

  • Ara A. Chalian
  • Sarah H. Kagan
Chapter

Abstract

Physiological and anatomical changes with age in the ear, nose, and throat have long been the subject of clinical interest; increasingly, they are the subject of basic and clinical investigations [1–7]. Nonetheless, the role of alterations in cells and tissues and distinctions among genetic, pathological, environmental, and interactive effects on cellular, tissue, and organ function are still emerging [3, 8–13]. Currently, presbycusis, presbystasis, presbyosmia, presbylarynx, and presbyphonia are the terms used to denote the functionally and clinically apparent manifestations of aging changes in the ear, nose, and throat [1, 2, 7, 14–18]. Presbyvertigo has also been proposed as a relevant term for matters of dizziness and falls in older adults though presbystasis is more commonly used [18]. Notably, presbypharynx is, while a parallel term to represent the manifestations of aging changes in the anatomy and physiology of the pharynx, not used in current literature. Instead, various uses of senescent swallowing and dysphagia predominate in the literature [19].

Keywords

Hair Cell Semicircular Canal Olfactory Epithelium Basilar Membrane Cochlear Nucleus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Belal A (1975) Presbycusis: physiological or pathological. J Laryngol Otol 89(10):1011–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Belal A, Glorig A (1986) Dysequilibrium of ageing (presbyastasis). J Laryngol Otol 100(09):1037–1041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen X, Thibeault SL (2008) Characteristics of age-related changes in cultured human vocal fold fibroblasts. Laryngoscope 118(9):1700–1704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ju Z, Rudolph KL (2006) Telomeres and telomerase in cancer stem cells. Eur J Cancer 42(9):1197–1203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thibeault SL, Glade RS, Li W (2006) Comparison of telomere length of vocal folds with different tissues: a physiological measurement of vocal senescence. J Voice 20(2):165–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walston J, Hadley EC, Ferrucci L et al (2006) Research agenda for frailty in older adults: toward a better understanding of physiology and etiology: summary from the American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging Research Conference on Frailty in Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 54(6):991–1001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Krmpotić-nemanić J (1969) Presbycusis, presbystasis and presbyosmia as consequences of the analogous biological process. Acta Otolaryngol 67(2–6):217–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Robbins J, Hind J, Barczi S (2009) Disorders of swallowing. In: Halter J, Ouslander JG, Tinetti ME, Studenski S, High KP, Asthana S( eds) Hazzard’s geriatric medicine and gerontology, 6th edn, Chap 41. McGraw-Hill, New York. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=5115738. Accessed 29 Dec 2009
  9. 9.
    Sha S-H, Talaska AE, Schacht J (2009) Age-related changes in the auditory system. In: Halter J, Ouslander JG, Tinetti ME, Studenski S, High KP, Asthana S (eds) Hazzard’s geriatric medicine and gerontology, Chap 44. McGraw-Hill, New York. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=5116627. Accessed 29 Dec 2009
  10. 10.
    Nanda A, Besdine RW (2009) Dizziness. In: Halter J, Ouslander JG, Tinetti ME, Studenski S, High KP, Asthana S (eds) Hazzard’s geriatric medicine and gerontology, 6th edn, Chap 56. McGraw-Hill, New York. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=5120291. Accessed 29 Dec 2009
  11. 11.
    Hall KE (2009) Effect of aging on gastrointestinal function. In: Halter J, Ouslander JG, Tinetti ME, Studenski S, High KP, Asthana S (eds) Hazzard’s geriatric medicine and gerontology, 6th edn, Chap 89. McGraw-Hill, New York. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=5128150. Accessed 29 Jan 2009
  12. 12.
    Basta D, Todt I, Ernst A (2007) Characterization of age-related changes in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. J Vestib Res 17(2–3):93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Agrawal Y, Carey JP, Della Santina CC, Schubert MC, Minor LB (2009) Disorders of balance and vestibular function in US adults: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2004. Arch Intern Med 169(10):938–944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morsomme D, Jamart J, Boucquey D, Remade M (1997) Presbyphonia: voice differences between the sexes in the elderly. Comparison by maximum phonation time, phonation quotient and spectral analysis. Logoped Phoniatr Vocol 22(1):9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gates GA, Mills JH (2005) Presbycusis. Lancet 366(9491):1111–1120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Busis SN (2006) Presbycusis. In: Calhoun KH, Eibling DE (eds) Geriatric otolaryngology. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 77–90Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kendall K (2007) Presbyphonia: a review. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 15(3):137–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Walther LE, Westhofen M (2007) Presbyvertigo-aging of otoconia and vestibular sensory cells. J Vestib Res 17(2–3):89–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ney DM, Weiss JM, Kind AJH, Robbins J (2009) Senescent swallowing: impact, strategies, and interventions. Nutr Clin Pract 24(3):395–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gates GA, Couropmitree NN, Myers RH (1999) Genetic associations in age-related hearing thresholds. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 125(6):654–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kendall K (2007) Presbyphonia: a review. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 15(3):137–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Howarth A, Shone GR (2006) Ageing and the auditory system. Postgrad Med J 82(965):166–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Feeney MP, Sanford CA (2004) Age effects in the human middle ear: wideband acoustical measures. J Acoust Soc Am 116(6):3546–3558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wiley TL, Nondahl DM, Cruickshanks KJ, Tweed TS (2005) Five-year changes in middle ear function for older adults. J Am Acad Audiol 16(3):129–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kusunoki T, Cureoglu S, Schachern PA, Baba K, Kariya S, Paparella MM (2004) Age-related histopathologic changes in the human cochlea: a temporal bone study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 131(6):897–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Suzuki T, Nomoto Y, Nakagawa T et al (2006) Age-dependent degeneration of the stria vascularis in human cochleae. Laryngoscope 116(10):1846–1850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu XZ, Yan D (2007) Ageing and hearing loss. J Pathol 211(2):188–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yilmaz ST, Sennaroglu G, Sennaroglu L, Kose SK (2007) Effect of age on speech recognition in noise and on contralateral transient evoked otoacoustic emission suppression. J Laryngol Otol 121(11):1029–1034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tremblay K, Ross B (2007) Effects of age and age-related hearing loss on the brain. J Commun Disord 40(4):305–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gates GA, Mills D, B-h N, D’Agostino R, Rubel EW (2002) Effects of age on the distortion product otoacoustic emission growth functions. Hear Res 163(1–2):53–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Caspary DM, Milbrandt JC, Helfert RH (1995) Central auditory aging: GABA changes in the inferior colliculus. Exp Gerontol 30(3–4):349–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gates GA, Murphy M, Rees TS, Fraher A (2003) Screening for handicapping hearing loss in the elderly. J Fam Pract 52(1):56–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Deshpande N, Patla AE (2007) Visual-vestibular interaction during goal directed locomotion: effects of aging and blurring vision. Exp Brain Res 176(1):43–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Whitney SL, Morris LO (2006) Multisensory Impairment in Older Adults: Evaluation and Intervention. In: Calhoun KH, Eibling DE (eds) Geriatric Otolaryngology. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 109–123Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee SK, Cha CI, Jung TS, Park DC, Yeo SG (2008) Age-related differences in parameters of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Acta Otolaryngol 128(1):66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Su H-C, Huang T-W, Young Y-H, Cheng P-W (2004) Aging effect on vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Otol Neurotol 25(6):977–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Furman JM (2006) Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. In: Calhoun KH, Eibling DE (eds) Geriatric Otolaryngology. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 155–163Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ekvall Hansson E, Mansson N-O, Hakansson A (2005) Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo among elderly patients in primary health care. Gerontology 51(6):386–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bhattacharyya N, Baugh RF, Orvidas L et al (2008) Clinical practice guideline: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 139(5 Suppl 4):S47–S81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Moody M, Ross AT (2006) Rhinoplasty in the aging patient. Facial Plast Surg 22(2):112–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lindemann J, Sannwald D, Wiesmiller K (2008) Age-related changes in intranasal air conditioning in the elderly. Laryngoscope 118(8):1472–1475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sahin-Yilmaz AA, Corey JP (2007) Rhinitis in the elderly. Clin Allergy Immunol 19:209–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chadwick SJ (2006) Allergic Rhinitis in the Elderly. In: Calhoun KH, Eibling DE (eds) Geriatric Otolaryngology. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 213–224Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fong KL, Zacharek MA (2006) Olfaction and Aging. In: Calhoun KH, Eibling DE (eds) Geriatric otolaryngology. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 173–180Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rawson NE (2006) Olfactory loss in aging. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2006(5):pe6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lafreniere D, Mann N (2009) Anosmia: loss of smell in the elderly. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 42(1):123–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schiffman SS, Graham BG (2000) Taste and smell perception affect appetite and immunity in the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr 54(6):S54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mirza N (2006) Taste Changes in the Elderly. In: Calhoun KH, Eibling DE (eds) Geriatric Otolaryngology. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 195–203Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wilson RS, Arnold SE, Schneider JA, Tang Y, Bennett DA (2007) The relationship between cerebral Alzheimer’s disease pathology and odour identification in old age. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 78(1):30–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wilson RS, Schneider JA, Arnold SE, Tang Y, Boyle PA, Bennett DA (2007) Olfactory identification and incidence of mild cognitive impairment in older age. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64(7):802–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Attems J, Lintner F, Jellinger KA (2005) Olfactory involvement in aging and Alzheimer’s disease: an autopsy study. J Alzheimers Dis 7(2):149–157; discussion 173–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Boesveldt S, de Muinck Keizer R, Wolters E, Berendse H (2009) Odor recognition memory is not independently impaired in Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm 116(5):575–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sataloff RT, Linville SE (2006) The Effects of Age on Voice. In: Calhoun KH, Eibling DE (eds) Geratric Otolaryngology. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 349–364Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    German RZ, Palmer JB (2006) Part 1 Oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus. In: Goyal R, Shaker R (eds) GI motility online. Nature Publishing, New York. http://www.nature.com/gimo/contents/pt1/full/gimo5.html#relatedcontent. Accessed 28 Dec 2009
  55. 55.
    Kawamura O, Easterling C, Aslam M, Rittmann T, Hofmann C, Shaker R (2004) Laryngo-upper esophageal sphincter contractile reflex in humans deteriorates with age. Gastroenterology 127(1):57–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gilbertson TA, Damak S, Margolskee RF (2000) The molecular physiology of taste transduction. Curr Opin Neurobiol 10(4):519–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kersing W, Jennekens FGI (2004) Age-related changes in human thyroarytenoid muscles: a histological and histochemical study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 261(7):386–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pontes P, Yamasaki R, Behlau M (2006) Morphological and functional aspects of the senile larynx. Folia Phoniatr Logop 58(3):151–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chalmers JM, Ettinger RL (2008) Public health issues in geriatric dentistry in the United States. Dent Clin North Am 52(2):423–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Turner MD, Ship JA (2007) Dry mouth and its effects on the oral health of elderly people. J Am Dent Assoc 138(Suppl 1):15S–20SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Percival RS (2009) Changes in oral microflora and host defences with advanced age. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g3ul5987p4307264/about/. Microbiol Aging 131–152
  62. 62.
    Fukunaga A, Uematsu H, Sugimoto K (2005) Influences of aging on taste perception and oral somatic sensation. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60(1):109–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Martin-Harris B, Brodsky MB, Michel Y, Ford CL, Walters B, Heffner J (2005) Breathing and swallowing dynamics across the adult lifespan. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 131(9):762–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology: Head and Neck SurgeryHospital of the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations