Anatomic and Physiologic Changes in the Ears, Nose, and Throat

  • Ara A. Chalian
  • Sarah H. Kagan


Physiological and anatomical changes with age in the ear, nose, and throat have long been the subject of clinical interest; increasingly, they are the subject of basic and clinical investigations [1–7]. Nonetheless, the role of alterations in cells and tissues and distinctions among genetic, pathological, environmental, and interactive effects on cellular, tissue, and organ function are still emerging [3, 8–13]. Currently, presbycusis, presbystasis, presbyosmia, presbylarynx, and presbyphonia are the terms used to denote the functionally and clinically apparent manifestations of aging changes in the ear, nose, and throat [1, 2, 7, 14–18]. Presbyvertigo has also been proposed as a relevant term for matters of dizziness and falls in older adults though presbystasis is more commonly used [18]. Notably, presbypharynx is, while a parallel term to represent the manifestations of aging changes in the anatomy and physiology of the pharynx, not used in current literature. Instead, various uses of senescent swallowing and dysphagia predominate in the literature [19].


Hair Cell Semicircular Canal Olfactory Epithelium Basilar Membrane Cochlear Nucleus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology: Head and Neck SurgeryHospital of the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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