Invited Commentary



Age-related alterations in endocrine function are important considerations in the surgical patient. Because the endocrine system is integrally related to virtually all bodily functions, it is unreasonable to think of the singular effects of a specific hormone deficiency. It is impossible to cover all aspects of the endocrinology of aging; however, we address some of the most significant.


Growth Hormone Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodule Autoimmune Thyroiditis Skeletal Density 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryWashington University Medical CenterSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations