Single Event Effects: Mechanisms and Classification

Part of the Frontiers in Electronic Testing book series (FRET, volume 41)


Single Event Effects (SEEs) induced by heavy ions, protons, and neutrons become an increasing limitation of the reliability of electronic components, circuits, and systems, and have stimulated abundant past and undergoing work for improving our understanding and developing mitigation techniques. Therefore, compiling the knowledge cumulated in an abundant literature, and reporting the open issues and ongoing efforts, is a challenging task. Such a tentative should start by discussing the fundamental aspects of SEEs before reviewing the different steps that are necessary for creating comprehensive prediction models and developing efficient mitigation techniques.


Alpha Particle Bipolar Transistor Soft Error Critical Charge Single Event Transient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    JESD89A: Measurement and reporting of alpha particle and terrestrial cosmic ray-induced soft errors in semiconductor devices Oct 2006,
  2. 2.
    P. Goldhagen, M. Reginato, T. Kniss, J.W. Wilson, R.C. Singleteny, I.W. Jones, and W. Van Seveninck, “Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons aboard an ER-2 high altitude airplane”, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, vol. 476, pp. 42–51, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Goldhagen, “Cosmic-ray neutrons on the ground and in the atmosphere”, MRS Bulletin, pp. 131–135, Feb. 2003.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Lei, A. Hands, S. Clucas, C. Dyer, and P. Truscott, “Improvement to and validations of the QinetiQ atmospheric radiation model (QARM)”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 53, no. 4, p1851, Aug. 2006, Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.B. Chadwick, and E. Normand, “Use of new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron cross sections for single event upset calculations”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 46, no. 6, p1386, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.B. Chadwick, P.G. Young, R.E. MacFarlane, P. Moller, G.M. Hale, R.C. Little, A.J. Koning, and S. Chiba, “LA150 documentation of cross sections, heating, and damage,” Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-UR-99-1222 (1999).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Wrobel, “Nucleon induced recoil ions in microelectronics” LPES-CRESA, University of Nice, Sophia-Antipolis, France International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology 2007.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Tukamoto, Y. Watanabe, and H. Nakashima, “Analysis of cosmic ray neutron-induced single-event phenomena” Proceedings of the 2002 Symp. on Nuclear Data, Nov. 21–22, 2002, JAERI, Tokai, Japan, JAERI-Conf. 2003–2006, p. 265, (2003).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Niita et al, JQMD code, JAERI-Data/Code 99-042 (1999).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Furihata, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, vol. 171, p251, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Normand, “Extensions of the burst generation ate method for wider application to proton/neutron-induced single event effects”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 45, no. 6, p2904, Dec. 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.F. Ziegler, SRIM 2008,
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    M. Murat, A. Akkerman, and J. Barak, “Electron and ion tracks in silicon: Spatial and temporal evolution”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 55, no. 6, p3046, Dec. 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.S. Kobayashi, A.L. Sternberg, L.W. Massengill, Ronald D. Schrimpf, and R.A. Weller, “Spatial and temporal characteristics of energy deposition by protons and alpha particles in silicon”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 51, no. 6, p3312, Dec. 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    X.W. Zhu, “Charge deposition modelling of thermal neutron products in fast submicron MOS devices”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 46, 1996.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    F.W. Sexton, “Destructive single-event effects in semiconductor devices and ICs”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. vol. 50, no. 3, Part 3, pp. 603–621, June 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Hubert, J.-M. Palau, K. Castellani-Coulie, M.-C. Calvet, S. Fourtine, “Detailed analysis of secondary ions’ effect for the calculation of neutron-induced SER in SRAMs”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 48, no 6, pp. 1953–1959, Dec. 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P.E. Dodd, and F.W. Sexton, “Critical charge concepts for CMOS SRAMs”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 42, no. 6, p1764, Dec. 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Yamagushi et al, “3-D device modeling for SRAM soft-error immunity and tolerance analysis”, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices. vol. 51, no.3, p378, Mar. 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Jain, and V. Zhu “Judicious choice of waveform parameters and accurate estimation of critical charge for logic SER”.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. Munteanu, and J.-L. Autran, “Modeling and simulation of single-event effects in digital devices and ICs”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1854–1878, Aug. 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.A. Bajura et al, “Models and algorithmic limits for an ECC-based approach to hardening sub-100-nm SRAMs”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 935, Aug. 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P.E. Dodd, “Device simulation of charge collection and single-event upset”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, pp. 561–575, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    P.E. Dodd et al, “Production and propagation of single-event transients in high-speed digital logic ICs”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 3278–3284, Dec. 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Hane, H. Nakamura, K. Tanaka, K. Watanabe, Y. Tosaka, “Soft error rate simulation considering neutron-induced single event transient from transistor to LSI-chip level”, 2008 Intern. Conf. on Sim. of Semiconductor Processes and Devices (SISPAD 2008).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Buchner et al, “Comparison of error rates in combinational and sequential logic”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 2209–2216, Dec. 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R.C. Baumann, “Radiation-induced soft errors in advanced semiconductor technologies”, IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 305–316, Sep. 2005.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. Shuming, L. Bin, L. Biwei, and L. Zheng, “Temperature dependence of digital SET pulse width in bulk and SOI technologies”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2914, Dec. 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. Bai et al, “A 65 nm logic technology featuring 35 nm Gate lengths, enhanced channel strain, 8 Cu Interconnect layers, low k ILD and 0.57 μm2 SRAM Cell” IEDM 2004.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    P.E. Dodd, “Physics-based simulation of single-event effects”, IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 343–357, Sep. 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Leif Z. Scheick, Steven M. Guertin, and Gary M. Swift, “Analysis of radiation effects on individual DRAM cells”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 47, no. 6, p2534, Dec. 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    T. O’Gorman, “The effect of cosmic rays on the soft error rate of a DRAM at ground level”, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 41, no. 4, p553, Apr. 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lloyd W. Massengill, “Cosmic and terrestrial single-event radiation effects in dynamic random access memories”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, p516, Apr. 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    E. Takeda, D. Hisamoto, T. Toyabe, “A new soft-error phenomenon in VLSIs: The alpha-particle-induced source/drain penetration (ALPEN) effect.” International Reliability Physics Symposium 1988. 26th Annual Proceedings, 12–14 April 1988 Page(s):109–112.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    R. Koga, S.H. Penzin, K.B. Crawford, W.R., Crain, “Single event functional interrupt (SEFI) sensitivity in microcircuits” Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems, 1997. RADECS 97. Fourth European Conference on 15–19 Sept. 1997 Page(s):311–318.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    P.E. Dodd, and L.W. Massengill, “Basic mechanisms and modeling of single-event upset in digital microelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 583–602, Jun. 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    M. Bagatin et al, “Key contributions to the cross section of NAND flash memories irradiated with heavy ions”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 55, no. 6, p3302, Dec. 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. George, R. Koga, G. Swift, G. Allen, C. Carmichael, and C.W. Tseng, Single Event Upsets in Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA Devices Radiation Effects Data Workshop, 2006 IEEE, July 2006 pp. 109–114.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. Puchner, R. Kapre, S. Sharifzadeh, J. Majjiga, R. Chao, D. Radaelli, and S. Wong, “Elimination of single event latchup in 90 nm sram technologies” 4th Annual IEEE IRPS Proceedings, 2006, March 2006 Page(s):721–722.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    R.G. Useinov, “Analytical model of radiation induced or single event latchup in CMOS integrated circuits”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 53, no. 4, p1834, Aug. 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    F. Bruguier, and J.-M. Palau, “Single particle-induced latchup”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 522–532.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    P.E. Dodd, M.R. Shaneyfelt, J.R. Schwank, and G.L. Hash, “Neutron-induced soft errors, latchup, and comparison of SER test methods for SRAM technologies”, IEDM Tech. Dig., pp. 333–336, 2002.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. Tausch, D. Sleeter, D. Radaelli, and H. Puchner, “Neutron Induced Micro SEL Events in COTS SRAM Devices” 2007 IEEE Radiation Effects Data Workshop, pp. 185–188.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    K.P. Rodbell, D.F. Heidel, H.H.K. Tang, M.S. Gordon, P. Oldiges, and C.E. Murray, “Low-energy proton-induced single-event-upsets in 65 nm node, silicon-on-insulator, latches and memory cells”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. vol. 54, no. 6, p2474, Dec. 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    David F. Heidel et al, “Low energy proton single-event-upset test results on 65 nm SOI SRAM”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. vol. 55, no. 6, p3394, Dec. 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    S. Furihata, and T. Nakamura, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., Suppl. 2, 758, 2002.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    J.F. Ziegler, J.P. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ion in Solids, Pergamon Press, 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Saint-Arnoult on YvelinesFrance

Personalised recommendations