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Evidence-Based Practices in Autism: Where We Started

  • Brian Reichow
  • Fred R. Volkmar
Chapter

Abstract

Sadly, the early history of intervention research in autism (1943–1980) can be relatively briefly summarized. In his initial description of autism, Kanner (1943) provided some follow-up information on the cases he had seen. Apart from one child “dumped in a school for the feeble minded” (Kanner 1943: 249), the other children (then between 9 and 11) had shown some development of social skills although fundamental social difficulties remained. Kanner’s original paper was not particularly concerned with intervention and, over the years, the varying conceptualizations of autism have led to marked changes in intervention. The emphasis on parental success and some social oddity (which was also noted by Kanner, who emphasized it because he believed the disorder to be congenital and hence not likely entirely attributable to psychopathology in the parents) led various clinicians in the 1950s to postulate a strong role for experience in the pathogenesis of autism (Bettelheim 1950; Despert 1971) and to mistaken attempts to “fix” the child through psychotherapy. Such attempts persist in some countries, particularly France, to the present day even though prominent analysts, such as Anna Freud, cautioned against such notions (see the review by Riddle in 1987).

Keywords

American Psychological Association Applied Behavior Analysis Picture Exchange Communication System Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network Functional Communication Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ABA

Applied behavior analysis

APA

American Psychological Association

ASDs

Autism spectrum disorders

ASHA

American Speech–Language–Hearing Association

DSM-III

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 3rd edition

DSM-IV

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition

EBM

Evidence-based medicine

EBP

Evidence-based practice*

EBT

Evidence-based treatment

EIBI

Early intensive behavioral intervention

EST

Empirically supported treatment

FAPE

Free and appropriate public education

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

ICD-10

International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th edition

IDEA

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

IEP

Individualized education program

ISP

Individualized support program

LEAP

Learning experiences and alternative programs for preschoolers and their parents

LRE

Least restrictive environment

NRC

National Research Council

PECOT

Patient exposure to intervention, control group, outcome, and time course

PICO

Problem intervention, comparison, outcome

PRT

Pivotal response treatment

RCT

Randomized control trial

SIGN

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network

SSED

Single subject experimental design

TEACCH

Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication related handicapped Children

UCLA

University of California at Los Angeles

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Reichow
    • 1
  • Fred R. Volkmar
    • 1
  1. 1.Yale Child Study CenterYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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