Advertisement

Investigating Archaeological Cultures: Material Culture, Variability, and Transmission

  • Benjamin W. Roberts
  • Marc Vander Linden
Chapter

Abstract

The concept of an archaeological culture rarely features in any surveys of the literature of modern archaeology, especially in the Anglo-American world. When it does appear, “cultures” are treated as an anachronism – a remnant of an archaic and long-dismissed stage of the discipline. Kent Flannery’s Parable of the Golden Marshalltown provides an exemplary formulation of the unfashionable status of the archaeological culture, when the Old Timer archaeologist was sacked by his own department for his continued but apparently outdated belief in this concept (Flannery 1982). Both introductory textbooks (e.g. Johnson 1999; Hodder and Hutson 2003; Renfrew and Bahn 2008) and theoretical compilations (e.g. Preucel and Hodder 1996; Hodder 2001; Van Pool and Van Pool 2003; Funari et al. 2005; Meskell and Preucel 2006) communicate the same message: the concept of archaeological cultures is deeply flawed and, as a consequence, should no longer be applied or even discussed.

Keywords

Material Culture Archaeological Record Culture History Cultural Transmission Archaeological Data 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This volume derives originally from a conference session What is an Archaeological Culture? Approaching cultural transmission and variation held at the 13th European Association of Archaeologist meeting in Zadar, Croatia on 18–23 September 2007. We are very grateful to the speakers and those who attended the session. We are also very grateful to Cate Frieman and Chris Thornton for reading and commenting on this chapter. Any errors remain entirely our own.

References

  1. Adams, W.Y. and Adams, E.W. (1991). Archaeological Typology and Practical Reality: a ­dialectical approach to artefact classification and sorting, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  2. Algaze, G. (1993). The Uruk World System: The Dynamics of Expansion of Early Mesopotamian Civilization, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  3. Anthony, D. (1990). Migration in Archaeology: the Baby and the Bathwater. American Anthropologist 92 (4): 23–42.Google Scholar
  4. Barrett, J.C. (1994). Fragments from Antiquity: archaeology of social life in Britain 2900-1200 BC, Blackwell, London.Google Scholar
  5. Bar-Yosef, O. and Zilhão, J. (eds.) (2006). Towards a definition of the Aurignacian. Trabalhos de Arqueologia 45.Google Scholar
  6. Bellwood, P. and Renfrew, A.C. (eds.) (2002). Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  7. Bernard-Knapp, A. (1992). Archaeology, Annales, and Ethnohistory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Google Scholar
  8. Bettinger, R.L. and Eerkens, J.W. (1999). Point typologies, cultural transmission and the spread of bow-and-arrow technology in the prehistoric Great Basin. American Antiquity 64: 231–242.Google Scholar
  9. Biehl, P.F., Gramsch, A. and Marciniak, A. (eds.) (2002). Archäologien Europas. Geschichte, Methoden und Theorien, Waxmann, Münster.Google Scholar
  10. Binford, L.R. (1965). Archaeological systematics and the study of culture process. American Antiquity 31: 203–10.Google Scholar
  11. Binford, L.R. (1972). An Archaeological Perspective, Seminar Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Bintliff, J.L. (ed.) (1991). The Annales School and Archaeology, Leicester University Press, Leicester.Google Scholar
  13. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  14. Bradley, R.J. (2007). The prehistory of Britain and Ireland, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  15. Breniquet, C. (2006). La disparition de la culture de Halaf: les origines de la culture de Obeid dans le nord de la Mésopotamie, Etudes et Recherche sur les Civilisations, Paris.Google Scholar
  16. Bruhns, K.O. (1994). Ancient South America, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  17. Brumann, C. (1999). Writing for culture: Why a successful concept should not be disgarded. Current Anthropology 40: 1–27.Google Scholar
  18. Burmeister, S. (2000). Archaeology and Migration: approaches to an archaeological proof of migration. Current Anthropology 41 (4): 539–67.Google Scholar
  19. Caldwell, J.R. (1964). Interaction spheres in prehistory. In J.R. Caldwell and R.L. Hall (eds.) Hopewellian studies, Illinois State Museum Papers 12, Springfield, pp. 133–43.Google Scholar
  20. Cameron, C. (ed.) (1995). Migration and the movement of southwestern peoples. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14 (2).Google Scholar
  21. Cavalli-Sforza, L. and Feldman, M.W. (1981). Cultural Transmission and Evolution: a quantitative approach, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  22. Chakrabarti, D. (2003). Archaeology in the Third World: A History of Indian Archaeology since 1947, D.K. Printworld, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  23. Chang, K.C. (1987). The Archaeology of Ancient China, 4th edition, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  24. Chapman, J. (1997). The impact of modern invasions and migrations on archaeological explanation. In J. Chapman and H. Hamerow, (eds.) Migrations and Invasions in Archaeological Explanation, British Archaeological Reports International Series 664, Oxford, pp. 11–20.Google Scholar
  25. Chapman, J. and Hamerow, H. (ed.) (1997). Migrations and Invasions in Archaeological Explanation. British Archaeological Reports (International Series) 664, Oxford.Google Scholar
  26. Chernykh, E.N. (1992). Ancient Metallurgy in the USSR: the Early Metal Age, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  27. Childe, V.G. (1929). The Danube in Prehistory, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  28. Childe, V.G. (1956). Piecing together the Past, Routledge and Kegan, Paul London.Google Scholar
  29. Chikhi, L., Nichols, R.A., Barbujani, G. & Beaumont, M.A. (2002). Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99: 11008–13.Google Scholar
  30. Clarke, D.L. (1968). Analytical Archaeology, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  31. Clifford, J. (1988). The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  32. Colledge, S., Conolly, J. and Shennan, S. (2005). The Evolution of Neolithic Farming from SW Asian Origins to NW European limits. European Journal of Archaeology 8(2): 137–156.Google Scholar
  33. Collins, M. (2006). Archaeology and the biomolecular ‘revolution’: too much of the wrong kind of data. Reuvenslezing 18, Stichting voor de Nederlandse Archeologie, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  34. Collis, J. (2003). The Celts: Origins, Myths and Inventions, Tempus, Stroud.Google Scholar
  35. Conkey, M. and Hastorf, C.A. (eds.) (1990). The Uses of Style in Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  36. Conolly, J. and Lake, M. (2006). Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  37. Conolly, J., Colledge, S. and Shennan, S. (2008). Founder effect, drift, and adaptive change in domestic crop use in early Neolithic Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 35(10): 2797–2804.Google Scholar
  38. Cunliffe, B. (2005). Iron Age Communities in Britain: an account of England, Scotland and Wales from the Seventh Century BC until the Roman Conquest. 4th edition, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  39. de Maret, P. (1990). Phases and facies in the archaeology of central Africa. In P. Robertshaw, (ed.) A History of African Archaeology, James Currey, London, pp. 109–134.Google Scholar
  40. Demoule, J.-P., Giligny, F., Lehoërff, A. and Schnapp, A. (2005). Guide des méthodes de l’archéologie, La Découverte, Paris.Google Scholar
  41. Demoule, J.-P. (2008). Les origines de la culture: la révolution néolithique, Editions, Le Pommier Paris.Google Scholar
  42. Demakopoulou, K., Eluère, C., Jensen, J., Jockenhovel, A. and Mohen, J-P. (1999). Gods and Heroes of the European Bronze Age, Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  43. Díaz-Andreu, M. and Champion, T. (1996). Nationalism and Archaeology in Europe, UCL Press, London.Google Scholar
  44. Díaz-Andreu, M., Lucy, S., Babic, S. and Edwards, D. (2005). The Archaeology of Identity. Approaches to gender, age, ethnicity, status and religion, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  45. Dietler, M. and Herbich, I. (1998). Habitus, techniques, style: an integrated approach to the social understanding of material culture and boundaries. In M.T. Stark (ed.) The archaeology of social boundaries, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp. 232–263.Google Scholar
  46. Dixon, R.M.W. (1997). The rise and fall of languages, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  47. Dobres, M.-A. and Robb, J.E. (2000). Agency in Archaeology, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  48. Dobres, M.-A. and J. Robb (2005). “Doing” Agency: Introductory Remarks on Methodology, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 12(3): 159–166.Google Scholar
  49. Dolukhanov, P. (1995). Archaeology in Russia and archaeological theory. In Ucko, P.J. (ed.) Theory in Archaeology: A World Perspective, Routledge, London, pp. 327–342.Google Scholar
  50. Dornan, J.L. (2002). Agency and Archaeology: past, present and future directions. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 9 (4): 303–329.Google Scholar
  51. Eerkens, J.W. and Lipo, C.P. (2005). Cultural transmission, copying errors, and the general variation in material culture and the archaeological record. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 24: 316–334.Google Scholar
  52. Eerkens, J.W. and Lipo, C.P. (2007). Cultural Transmission Theory and the archaeological record: providing context to understanding variation and temporal changes in material culture. Journal of Archaeological Research 15: 239–274.Google Scholar
  53. Eggert, M.K.H. (2001). Prähistorische Archäologie. Konzepte und Methoden, A. Francke Verlag, Tübingen.Google Scholar
  54. Evans, C. (1996). Archaeology against the state: the roots of internationalism. In Graves-Brown, P., Jones, S., and Gamble, C. (eds). Cultural identity and archaeology: the construction of European communities, Routledge, London, pp. 312–326.Google Scholar
  55. Falkenhausen, L. von. (1995). The regionalist paradigm in Chinese archaeology. In P.L. Kohl and C. Fawcett (eds.) Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 198–217.Google Scholar
  56. Feder, K.L. (2007). Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Fitzpatrick, A. (1996). ‘Celtic’ Iron Age Europe: the theoretical basis. In Graves-Brown, P., Jones, S., and Gamble, C. (eds). Cultural identity and archaeology: the construction of European communities, Routledge, London, 238–255.Google Scholar
  58. Flannery, K.V. (1982). The Golden Marshalltown: A Parable for the Archeology of the 1980s. American Anthropologist 84 (2): 265–278.Google Scholar
  59. Funari, P.P., Zarankin, A. and Stovel, E. (eds.) (2005). Global Archaeological Theory: contextual voices and contemporary thoughts, Kluwer/Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Gardner, A. (2004). Agency Uncovered: Archaeological Perspectives on Social Agency, Power, and Being Human, UCL Press, London.Google Scholar
  61. Gibson, W. (2003). Pattern Recognition, Penguin, London.Google Scholar
  62. Gladwin, W. and Gladwin, H.S. (1934). A Method for Designation of Cultures and their Variations, Medallion Papers 15, Globe.Google Scholar
  63. Graves-Brown, P., Jones, S. and Gamble, C. (1996). Cultural identity and archaeology: the construction of European communities, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  64. Green, W. and Doershuk, J.F. (1998). Cultural Resource Management and American Archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Research 6 (2): 121–67.Google Scholar
  65. Habu, J. (2004). Ancient Jomon of Japan, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  66. Hakenbeck, S.E. (2007). Situational ethnicity and nested identities: New approaches to an old problem. Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History 14: 21–29.Google Scholar
  67. Harris, D.R. (1994). The Archaeology of V. Gordon Childe: contemporary perspectives, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  68. Hegmon, M. (1992). Archaeological Research on Style. Annual Review of Anthropology 21: 517–536.Google Scholar
  69. Hodder, I. (1978a).Spatial correlations between material culture and society: a review. In I. Hodder (ed.) The Spatial Organisation of Culture, Duckworth, London, pp. 3–24. Google Scholar
  70. Hodder, I. (1978b).The spatial structure of material ‘cultures’: a review of some of the evidence. In I. Hodder (ed.) The Spatial Organisation of Culture, Duckworth, London, pp. 93–111. Google Scholar
  71. Hodder, I. (1982). Symbols in action. Ethnoarchaeological Studies of Material Culture, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  72. Hodder, I. (1990). The Domestication of Europe, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  73. Hodder, I. (ed.) (1991). Archaeological theory in Europe: the last three decades, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  74. Hodder, I. (2001). Archaeological Theory Today, Polity Press, London.Google Scholar
  75. Hodder, I. and Hutson, S. (2003). Reading the past: current approaches to interpretation in archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  76. Hodder, I. and Orton, C. (1976). Spatial analysis in archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  77. Hudson, M.J. (2006). Pots not People. Critique of Anthropology 26 (4): 411–434.Google Scholar
  78. Ingold, T. (1994). Preface. In T. Ingold (ed.) Companion encyclopaedia of anthropology: humanity, culture and social life, xiii-xxii, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  79. Insoll, T. (2007). The Archaeology of Identities: a reader, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  80. Izzet, V. (2007). The Archaeology of Etruscan society, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  81. Johnson, M. (1999). Archaeological Theory: an introduction, WileyBlackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  82. Jones, S. (1997). The Archaeology of Ethnicity: Constructing Identities in the Past and Present, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  83. Kane, S. (ed.) (2003). The Politics of Archaeology and Identity in a Global Context, Archaeological Institute of America, Boston.Google Scholar
  84. Kidder, A. (1924). An Introduction to the Study of Southwestern Archaeology, with a Preliminary Account of the Excavations at Pecos, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  85. King, R. and Underhill, P.A. (2002). Congruent distribution of Neolithic painted pottery and ceramic figurines with Y-chromosome lineages. Antiquity 76: 707–14.Google Scholar
  86. Klejn, L. (1982). Archaeological Typology, British Archaeological Reports 153, Oxford.Google Scholar
  87. Kluckhohn, C. (1936). Some reflections on the method and theory of the Kulturkreislehre. American Anthropologist 38(2): 157–196.Google Scholar
  88. Kohl, P.L. (1978). The balance of trade in Southwestern Asia during the mid-third millennium BC. Current Anthropology 19: 463–92.Google Scholar
  89. Kohl, P.L. (1989). The Use and Abuse of World Systems Theory: The Case of the ‘Pristine’ West Asian State. In C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky (ed.) Archaeological Thought in America, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 218–240.Google Scholar
  90. Kohl, P.L. (1993). Nationalism, politics and the practice of archaeology in Soviet Transcaucasia. Journal of European Archaeology 1 (2): 181–90.Google Scholar
  91. Kohl, P.L. (2007). The Making of Bronze Age Eurasia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  92. Kohl, P.L. (2008). Shared social fields: evolutionary convergence in prehistory and contemporary practice. American Anthropologist 110 (4): 495–506.Google Scholar
  93. Kohl, P.L. and Fawcett, C. (eds.) (1995). Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  94. Kohl, P.L. and Pérez Gollan, J.A. (2002). Religion, politics and prehistory: reassessing the lingering legacy of Oswald Menghin. Current Anthropology 43 (4): 561–586.Google Scholar
  95. Kohler, T.A. and van der Leeuw, S.E. (eds.) (2007). The Model-Based Archaeology of Socio-natural Systems, SAR Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  96. Koryakova, L. (2002). Present day Russian archaeology and the outside world. In Biehl, P.F., Gramsch, A. and Marciniak, A. (eds.) Archäologien Europas. Geschichte, Methoden und Theorien, Waxmann, Münster, pp. 239–254.Google Scholar
  97. Koryakova, L.N. and Epimakhov, A.V. (2007). The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  98. Kossinna, G. (1911). Die Herkunft der Germanen. Zur Methode der Siedlungsarchäologie, Kabitzsch, Würzburg.Google Scholar
  99. Kossinna, G. (1926). Ursprung und Verbreitung der Germanen in vor- und frühgeschichtlicher Zeit, Kabitzsch, Würzburg.Google Scholar
  100. Kristiansen, K. (2008). Does the ‘archaeology of Europe’ exist? Archaeological Dialogues 15 (1): 5–24.Google Scholar
  101. Kristiansen, K. and Larsson, T.L. (2005). The Rise of Bronze Age Society: travels, transmissions and transformations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  102. Kroeber, A.L. (1923). Anthropology, Harcourt, Brace New York.Google Scholar
  103. Kroeber, A.L. (1935). Preface. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 37: 1–11.Google Scholar
  104. Kroeber, A.L. (1940). Stimulus diffusion. American Anthropologist 42: 1–20.Google Scholar
  105. Lightfoot, E. (ed.) (2008). Movement, Mobility and Migration. Archaeological Review from Cambridge 23 (2).Google Scholar
  106. Liu, L. (2005). The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  107. Lyman, R.L., O’Brien, M.J. and Dunnell, R.C. (1997). The Rise and Fall of Culture History, Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  108. MacEachern, S. (2000). Genes, Tribes and African History. Current Anthropology 41(3): 357–384.Google Scholar
  109. McKern, W.C. (1939). The Midwestern Taxonomic Method as an aid to archaeological culture study. American Antiquity 4: 301–13.Google Scholar
  110. Meskell, L. (1998). Archaeology under Fire: Nationalism, Politics and Heritage in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  111. Meskell, L. and Preucel, R.W. (eds.) (2006). A Companion to Social Archaeology, WileyBlackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  112. Mesoudi, A. and M. J. O’Brien (2008a). The cultural transmission of Great Basin projectile point technology I: an experimental simulation. American Antiquity 73: 3–28.Google Scholar
  113. Mesoudi, A., and M. J. O’Brien (2008b). The cultural transmission of Great Basin projectile- point technology II: an agent-based computer simulation. American Antiquity 73: 627–644.Google Scholar
  114. Moscati, S. (1991). The Celts, Bompiani, Milan.Google Scholar
  115. Murray, T. (ed.) (2001). The Encyclopedia of Archaeology: History and Discoveries, ABC/CLIO, Santa Barbara.Google Scholar
  116. Neustupný, E. (1982). Prehistoric migrations by infiltration. Archeologické Rozhledy 34: 278–93.Google Scholar
  117. O’Brien, M.J. (2008). Cultural Transmission and Archaeology, Society for American Archaeology Press, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  118. O’Brien, M.J. and Lyman, R.L. (2009). Darwin and Historical Archaeology. In D. Gaimster and T. Majewski (eds). International Handbook of Historical Archaeology, Springer, New York, pp. 227–52.Google Scholar
  119. O’Brien, M.J. and Shennan, S.J. (eds.) (2009). Innovation in Cultural Systems Contributions from Evolutionary Anthropology. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  120. Oppenheimer, S. 2006. The Origins of the British, Robinson, London.Google Scholar
  121. Orser, C.E. (2003). Race and Practice in Archaeological Interpretation, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  122. Osborne, R. (ed.) (2008). Tradition. World Archaeology 40 (3).Google Scholar
  123. Phillips, P. and G. R. Willey. (1953). Method and theory in American archaeology: An operational basis for culture-historical integration. American Anthropologist 55(5): 615–633.Google Scholar
  124. Piggott, S. (1965). Ancient Europe from the beginnings of agriculture to classical antiquity, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  125. Plog, S. (1983). Analysis of style of artefacts. Annual Review of Anthropology 12: 125–142.Google Scholar
  126. Pluciennik, M. (1999). Archaeological narratives and other ways of telling. Current Anthropology 40: 653–678.Google Scholar
  127. Politis, G. (2003). The theoretical landscape and the methodological developments of archaeology in Latin American, American Antiquity 68 (2): 247–272.Google Scholar
  128. Poutignat, P. and Streiff-Fenart, J. (1999). Théories de l’ethnicité, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.Google Scholar
  129. Preucel, R.W. and Hodder, I. (1996). Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: a reader, Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  130. Renfrew, A.C. (1973). Before Civilization: The Radiocarbon Revolution and Prehistoric Europe, Pelican, London.Google Scholar
  131. Renfrew, A.C. (1977). Space, Time and Polity. In M.J. Rowlands and J. Friedman (eds.) The Evolution of Social Systems, Duckworth, London, pp. 89–114.Google Scholar
  132. Renfrew, A.C. (1987). Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins, Pimlico, London.Google Scholar
  133. Renfrew, A.C. and Bahn, P. (2008). Archaeology: Theories, Method and Practice, 5th edition, Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  134. Renfrew, A.C. and Cherry, J.F. (1986). Peer polity interaction and socio-political change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  135. Richards, M. (2003). The Neolithic invasion of Europe. Annual Review of Anthropology 32: 135–62.Google Scholar
  136. Rouse, I.B. (1986). Migrations in Prehistory, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  137. Sackett, J.R. (1982). Approaches to Style in Lithic Archaeology. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 1: 59–112.Google Scholar
  138. Sackett, J.R. (1985). Style and Ethnicity in the Kalahari: A Reply to Wiessner. American Antiquity 50: 154–9.Google Scholar
  139. Schiffer, M.B. (1976). Behavioural Archaeology, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  140. Schiffer, M.B. and Skibo, J.M. (1997). The Explanation of Artifact Variability. American Antiquity 62: 27–50.Google Scholar
  141. Sergent, B. (1995). Les Indo-Européens. Histoire, langues, mythes, Payot, Paris.Google Scholar
  142. Shennan, S. (1989a). Introduction. In S. Shennan (ed.) Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity, Unwin-Hyman, London, pp. 1–32.Google Scholar
  143. Shennan, S. (1989b). Cultural transmission and culture change. In van der Leeuw, S.E. and Torrence, R. (eds.), What’s new? A closer look at the process of innovation, One World Archaeology 14, Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 330–346.Google Scholar
  144. Shennan, S. (2000). Population, Culture History and the Dynamics of Culture Change. Current Anthropology 41: 811–835.Google Scholar
  145. Shennan, S.J. and Wilkinson, J.R. (2001). Ceramic style change and neutral evolution: A case study from Neolithic Europe. American Antiquity 66 (4): 577–593.Google Scholar
  146. Sherratt, A.G. (1993). What would a Bronze Age world system look like? Relations between temperate Europe and the Mediterranean in later prehistory. Journal of European Archaeology 1 (2): 1–57.Google Scholar
  147. Stark, M.T. (1998). Introduction. In M.T. Stark (ed.) The Archaeology of Social Boundaries, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
  148. Stark, M.T., Horne, L. and Bowser, B.J. (eds.) (2008). Cultural Transmission and Material Culture: Breaking Down Boundaries, University of Arizona Press, Tuscon.Google Scholar
  149. Taylor, W. (1948). A Study of Archaeology, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  150. Thornton, C. P. and Schurr, T.G. (2004a). Genes, Language, and Culture: An Example from the Tarim Basin. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 23(1): 83–106.Google Scholar
  151. Thornton, C.P. and Schurr, T.G. (2004b). Prehistoric ‘Europeans’ in Xinjiang?: A case for multiple interpretations. In H. Bolin (ed.) The Interplay of Past and Present, Södertörn Archaeological Studies 1, Stockholm, pp. 85–98.Google Scholar
  152. Trigger, B. (1990). The history of African archaeology in world perspective. In P. Robertshaw, (ed.), A History of African Archaeology, James Currey, London, pp. 309–319.Google Scholar
  153. Trigger, B. (2006). A History of Archaeological Thought. 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  154. Tsude, H. (1995). Archaeological theory in Japan. In Ucko, P.J. (ed.) Theory in Archaeology: A World Perspective, Routledge, London, pp. 298–311.Google Scholar
  155. Ucko, P. (ed.) (1995). Theory in Archaeology: A World Perspective, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  156. Van Pool, T.L. and Van Pool, C.S. (2003). Essential Tensions in Archaeological Method and Theory, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  157. Van Pool, C.S. (2008). Agents and Cultural Transmission. In M.J. O’Brien (ed.) Cultural Transmission and Archaeology: Some Fundamental Issues, Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C., pp. 189–199.Google Scholar
  158. Veit, U. (1989). Ethnic Concepts in German Prehistory: A Case Study on the Relationship between Cultural Identity and Archaeological Objectivity. In S. Shennan (ed.), Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity, Unwin-Hyman, London, pp. 35–56.Google Scholar
  159. Wang, T. (1997). Su Bingqi and contemporary Chinese archaeology, with an annotated translation of Su’s paper “Hua people - descendants of the dragon - Chinese: an archaeological seeking for roots”. Antiquity 71: 31–9.Google Scholar
  160. Wheatley, D. and Gillings, M. (2002). Spatial technology and archaeology: the archaeological applications of GIS, Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  161. Whittle, A. (1996). Europe in the Neolithic: the Creation of New Worlds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  162. Wiessner, P. (1983). Style and social information in Kalahari San projectile points. American Antiquity 48: 253–276.Google Scholar
  163. Wiessner, P. (1984). Reconsidering the behavioural basis for style: a case study among the Kalahari San. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 3: 190–234.Google Scholar
  164. Wiessner, P. (1985). Style or isochrestic variation? A reply to Sackett. American Antiquity 50 (1): 160–66.Google Scholar
  165. Wiessner, P. (1990). Is there unity to style? In M. Conkey and C. Hastorf (eds.) The Uses of Style in Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 105–112.Google Scholar
  166. Willey, G.R. and. Phillips, P. (1958). Method and theory in American archaeology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  167. Wolf, E.R. (1984). Culture: Panacea or Problem? American Antiquity 49 (2): 393-400.Google Scholar
  168. Wolf, E.R. (1994). Perilous Ideas: Race, Culture and People. Current Anthropology, 35(1): 1–12.Google Scholar
  169. Wright, R. (2002). Revisiting Interaction Spheres: Social Boundaries and Technologies on Inner and Outermost Frontiers. Iranica Antiqua 37: 403–417.Google Scholar
  170. Wyszomirska-Werbart, B. and Barford, P. (eds.) (1996). The concept of archaeological cultures. Archaeologia Polona 34.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Prehistory and EuropeThe British MuseumLondonUK

Personalised recommendations