Overall Assessment of the Aspirate: Diagnostic Clues

  • Stefan E. Pambuccian
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 10)


The questions that the pathologist tries to sequentially answer when evaluating fine needle aspiration biopsies of lymph nodes are Is the aspirate adequate? Is the nodule clinically considered to be a lymph node really a lymph node? Is the lymphadenopathy caused by a benign or malignant process? If it is a benign process, is it infectious? Can the infectious agent be identified? If it is malignant, is it a metastasis or lymphoma? If it is a metastasis what is the type (carcinoma, melanoma, sarcoma)? Where did it most likely originate? If it is lymphoma, is it non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin lymphoma? If it is non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is it of B or T cell type? What is the subtype? Is it possible to grade it? If it is Hodgkin lymphoma, is it possible to determine the subtype?


Lymphoid Cell Hodgkin Lymphoma Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Fine Needle Aspirate Crush Artifact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading

  1. Bangerter M, Herrmann F, Griesshammer M, Gruss HJ, Hafner M, Heimpel H, Binder T (1997) The abundant presence of Soderstrom bodies in cytology smears of fine-needle aspirates contributes to distinguishing high-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma from carcinoma and sarcoma. Ann Hematol 74(4):175–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Feldman PS, Covell JL, Kardos TF (1989) Fine needle aspiration cytology: lymph node, thyroid, and salivary gland. American Society of Clinical Pathologists Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  3. Flanders E, Kornstein MJ, Wakely PE Jr, Kardos TF, Frable WJ (1993) Lymphoglandular bodies in fine-needle aspiration cytology smears. Am J Clin Pathol 99(5):566–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Francis IM, Das DK, al-Rubah NA, Gupta SK (1994) Lymphoglandular bodies in lymphoid lesions and non-lymphoid round cell tumours: a quantitative assessment. Diagn Cytopathol 11(1):23–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Michael CW, Hunter B (2000) Interpretation of fine-needle aspirates processed by the ThinPrep technique: cytologic artifacts and diagnostic pitfalls. Diagn Cytopathol 23(1):6–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Moriarty AT (2005) Lymph node. In: Renshaw AA (ed) Aspiration cytology: a pattern recognition approach. ElsevierSaunders, Philadelphia, pp 477–533Google Scholar
  7. Murakami T, Kayano H, Itoh T, Shimizu Y, Ban S, Ogawa F, Sannohe S, Kondo S, Shimizu M (2008) Lymphoglandular bodies in malignant tumors: with special reference to histologic specimens. Ann Diagn Pathol 12(4):249–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. O’Dowd GJ, Frable WJ, Behm FG (1985) Fine needle aspiration cytology of benign lymph node hyperplasias. Diagnostic significance of lymphohistiocytic aggregates. Acta Cytol 29(4):554–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Soderstrom N (1968) The free cytoplasmic fragments of lymphoglandular tissue (lymphoglandular bodies). A preliminary presentation. Scand J Haematol, 5(2):138–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Suh YK, Shabaik A, Meurer WT, Shin SS (1997) Lymphoid cell aggregates: a useful clue in the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of follicular lymphomas. Diagn Cytopathol 17(6):467–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Thunnissen FB, Kroese AH, Ambergen AW, Peterse JL, Jansen JW, Ladde BE, van Pel R, Tiebosch AT, Schaafsma W (1997) Which cytological criteria are the most discriminative to distinguish carcinoma, lymphoma, and soft-tissue sarcoma? A probabilistic approach. Diagn Cytopathol 17(5):333–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. van Heerde P, Go D, Koolman-Schellekens MA, Peterse JL (1984) Cytodiagnosis of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A morphological analysis of 215 biopsy proven cases. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 403(3):213–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Lab. Medicine & PathologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Outpatient Pathology AssociatesSacramentoUSA

Personalised recommendations