Military imaging satellites: long-range intelligence

  • Pat Norris
Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)


Surf the web to Google Earth or Microsoft Bing and you can zoom in on anywhere in the world from above. A few places are blurred or pixellated like the X-rated bits on TV - your web search engine will take you to websites that specialize in identifying the censored areas if you search on something like “censored areas in Google Earth”. One famous blurred area during the Administration of President George W. Bush was the home of Vice President Cheney at the US Naval Observatory in Washington, DC. As described in Chapter 1, once the Obama Administration took office, the blurring was removed.


Elliptical Orbit Geostationary Orbit Rocket Motor Ballistic Missile Unmanned Aircraft 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Kehler R. (2003) Space in US Military Strategy,in The Impact of Space upon Military Operations(London: Royal United Services Institute), June 12th–13th.Google Scholar
  2. Richelson J. T. (2008) The US Intelligence Community,5th edn (Boulder, CO: Westview Press).Google Scholar
  3. Richelson J. T. (2002) The Wizards of Langley: Inside the CIA's Directorate of Science & Technology(Boulder, CO: Westview Press).Google Scholar
  4. Covault C. (2006) Fade to Black: US Secret Satellites Make 16 Runs a Day over Iranian Nuclear Sites, but Such Comprehensive Intel May Not Last the Decade, as Space Recon Dwindles, Aviation Week & Space Technology,May 15th, 24–26.Google Scholar
  5. Brinton T. (2009b) Proposed Imaging Satellite Effort Draws Congressional Opposition, Space News,April 6th, 1.Google Scholar
  6. Brinton T. (2010c) NRO Chief Aims to Restore Technology Development Funding, Space News,April 19th, 7.Google Scholar
  7. Carlson B. (2009) Keynote Speech at GEOINT Symposium 2009, San Antonio, Texas, October 21st, available online at
  8. Carlson B. (2010) Keynote Speech at National Space Symposium, Colorado Springs, Colorado, April 14th, available online at nal_Space_Symposium.pdf.
  9. Hayes-Ryan K. (2009) Keynote Speech at MILSPACE 2009, Paris, France, April 27–28th, available online at
  10. Chaisson E. J. (1998) The Hubble Wars(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  11. Mecham M. (2010) First Mirror Shines: Polished to a 20-Nanometer Tolerance, JWST's Segment Passes Big Cryo Test, Aviation Week & Space Technology,March 8th, 36.Google Scholar
  12. Mesrine M. (ed.) (2008) Final Report: Applications for Aperture SynthesisGoogle Scholar
  13. Santer M. J. and Seffen K. A. (2009) Optical Space Telescope Structures: The State of the Art and Future Directions, The Aeronautical Journal,October, 113(1148), 633–645.Google Scholar
  14. Lindgren D. T. (2000) Trust but Verify(Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press).Google Scholar
  15. Iannotta B. (2009) Pentagon Eyes Satellite Equipped with Joystick-Controlled Video Cameras, Space News,November 23rd, 12.Google Scholar
  16. Matthews W. (2009) TacSat-3 Earth Observing Satellite Puts Hyperspectral Imagery Analysis in Space, Space News,June 22nd, 16.Google Scholar
  17. de Selding P. B. (2009b) GeoEye Earnings Sharply Higher on GeoEye-1 Sales, Space News,November 16th, 10.Google Scholar
  18. Rashid A. (2009) Descent into Chaos: The World's Most Unstable Region and the Threat to Global Security(London: Penguin Books).Google Scholar
  19. Space News(2010c) NGA Extends Deal with Spot Image, March 8th, 3.Google Scholar
  20. Shalal-Esa A. (2009) Pentagon Sees Expanding Use of Satellite Imagery, Reuters, October 1st, available online at
  21. Keith A. (2010a) Diversifying Capabilities for Image Intelligence, Space News,July 19th, 16–1.Google Scholar
  22. Brinton T. (2010d) Pentagon Eyes New Imaging Capabilities, Ground Systems, Space News,January 18th, 12.Google Scholar
  23. de Selding P. B. (2010e) GeoEye Takes on Equity Investor for NGA Contract, Space News,March 15th, 6–10.Google Scholar
  24. Hendrickx B. (2005) Snooping on Radars: A History of Soviet/Russian Global Signals Intelligence Satellites, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 58(Suppl. 2), 97–133.Google Scholar
  25. Norris P. (2007) Spies in the Sky(Chichester, UK: Springer-Praxis).Google Scholar
  26. Covault C. (2008a) New Russian Recon, Aviation Week & Space Technology,August 4th, 32.Google Scholar
  27. Lardier C. (2010c) La Russie maintient son avance en 2009, Air & Cosmos,January 8th, 2200, 26–32.Google Scholar
  28. Air & Cosmos (2007a) ELISA sur ARIANE-5, September 14th, 2091,17. Air & Cosmos(2007b) Kobalt-M en orbite, June 15th, 152. Air & Cosmos(2010) Kobalt-M, April 23rd, 2215, 35.Google Scholar
  29. Lardier C. (2008c) Neuf tirs dont deux échecs en juillet et août, Air & Cosmos, August 29th, 2136, 32–33.Google Scholar
  30. Morring F. Jr (ed.) (2007a) Russian Milsats, Aviation Week & Space Technology, September 24th, 23.Google Scholar
  31. Lardier C. (2010b) La Russie lève le voile sur Orletz, Air & Cosmos,April 30th, 2216, 70.Google Scholar
  32. Lardier C. (2009c) Nouveautés spatiales à Joukovski: Le future lanceur Rus-M et le successeur du Soyouz-TMA étaient presents par Energya et TsSKB-Progress, Air & Cosmos,August 28th, 2183, 18–19.Google Scholar
  33. Grishin V. (2009) [Federal Space Agency] FSA Report to the CCSDS Management Council, October (should in due course be available online at = %2Fcmc%2Fdocs&View=% 7BD5DD30F7%2D53FC%2D45B9%2D8B93%2D709B280A475B%7D).
  34. Fulghum D. A. and Butler A. (2007) Reassessing Space: US Analysts Sort throughGoogle Scholar
  35. Covault C. (2007d) Space Control: Chinese Anti-Satellite Weapon Test Will Intensify Funding and Global Policy Debate on the Military Uses of Space, Aviation Week & Space Technology,January 22nd, 24–25.Google Scholar
  36. Lardier C. (2010a) La Chine lance un nouveau Yaogan: Il s'agit probablement d'un satellite d'imagerie radar militaire. Par ailleurs, la Chine a reporté le lancement du module orbital Tiangong-1 à 2011, Air & Cosmos,March 12th, 2209, 38–39.Google Scholar
  37. McDowell J. (2010) Jonathan's Space Report,April 6th, 625, available online at
  38. Lardier C. (2008b) Le satellite Pléiades-1 sort de ses difficultés: Fin juillet, Thales Alenia Space va livrer l'instrument optique à EADS Astrium Toulouse pour son integration sur la platform. L'ensemble sera livré à Kourou dans quinze mois, Air & Cosmos,July 11th, 2133, 60–61.Google Scholar
  39. Bombeau B. (2009) Helios 2B: applications opérationnelles, Air & Cosmos, December 18th, 54–55.Google Scholar
  40. de Selding P. B. (2010d) French Helios 2B Spy Sat Sends Back First Test Images, Space News,January 4th, 16.Google Scholar
  41. de Selding P. B. (2010f) Helios 2B Launch Lessens Pressure on Finding MUSIS Solution, Space News,January 11th, 10.Google Scholar
  42. Taverna M. A. (2010) Force Fusion: France's Helios IIB Satellite Reinforces European Imagery-Intelligence Capability, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 4th, 37–38.Google Scholar
  43. de Selding P. B. (2009c) Spain Presses Ahead with Dual-Use Imaging Satellites, Space News,November 2nd, 11.Google Scholar
  44. Space News(2010b) MUSIS Ground System Deal Teters on Edge of Collapse, April 26th, 6.Google Scholar
  45. Dalton S. (2010) Dominant Air Power in the Information Age(London: International Institute for Strategic Studies), February 15th, available online at recent-key-addresses/air-chief-marshal-sir-stephen-dalton/.
  46. Secretary of State for Defence (2010) Adaptability and Partnership: Issues for the Strategic Defence Review(London: HMSO), Cm 7794, February.Google Scholar
  47. Opall-Rome B. (2008) 1st Israeli Radar Imaging Satellite to Upgrade Strategic Intel Capabilities, Space News,January 28th, 5.Google Scholar
  48. Singh B. (2008) Israel Emerges as India's Largest R&D Partner, Battlespace, October, 11(5), 6.Google Scholar
  49. Jayaraman K. S. (2008) ISRO Helps Indian Military Establish Space Cell, Space News,June 23rd, 8.Google Scholar
  50. Morring F. Jr (ed.) (2007b) Watching North Korea, Aviation Week & Space Technology,March 5th, 15.Google Scholar
  51. Space News(2007) Japan Lofts Two Imaging Satellites for Constellation, March 5th, 4.Google Scholar
  52. Kallender-Umezu P. (2009) North Korean Missile Test Puts Focus on Japanese Space Policy, Space News,April 13th, 7.Google Scholar
  53. Morring F. Jr (ed.) (2009) Overhead Reconnaissance, Aviation Week & Space Technology,December 7th, 19.Google Scholar
  54. Brinton T. (2009d) US Loosens Restrictions on Commercial Radar Satellites, Space News,October 12th, 4.Google Scholar
  55. Sapp B. (2010) Statement for the Record before the House Armed Services Committee Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, April 21st, available online at
  56. Brinton T. (2010a) NGA Awards Three Contracts for Radar Satellite Data, Space News,January 4th, 5.Google Scholar
  57. Doyle J. M. (ed.) (2008) Radar Love, Aviation Week & Space Technology,September 29th, 23.Google Scholar
  58. Butler A. and Taverna M. A. (2010) New Image: After Years of Failed Space Radar Efforts, US Turns to Foreign Commercial Providers for SAR Data, Aviation Week & Space Technology,April 12th, 50–51.Google Scholar
  59. de Selding P. (2004) German Military Prepares for 2005 SAR-Lupe Deployment,Space News,May 24th, 6.Google Scholar
  60. de Selding P. B. (2007b) Germany's TerraSAR-X Launched, Space News,June 18th, 6.Google Scholar
  61. Lardier C. (2007) Succès pour Cosmo/Skymed-1, Air & Cosmos,June 15th, 2082, 152.Google Scholar
  62. Nativi A. (2007) Cosmo Calling: With X-Band Radar Safely in Orbit, Italy Starts Work on Second-Generation Design, Aviation Week & Space Technology,June 18th, 72.Google Scholar
  63. Morring F. Jr (ed.) (2010b) Israel Launch Aims to Boost Intel on Iran, Aviation Week & Space Technology,February 15th, 16.Google Scholar
  64. Covault C. (2007a) Eyes on China and Iran, Aviation Week & Space Technology, April 9th, 48–54.Google Scholar
  65. Reed T. C. and Stillman D. B. (2009) The Nuclear Express: A Political History of the Bomb and its Proliferation(Minneapolis, MN: Zenith Press).Google Scholar
  66. Brinton T. (2008) DSP Constellation Health Concerns Prompt Plan for Gap-Filler Satellite, Space News,November 24th, 1–4.Google Scholar
  67. New Scientist(2009b) US Plays "I Spy a Broken Sat'', January 24th, 21.Google Scholar
  68. Richelson J. T. (1999) America's Space Sentinels: DSP Satellites and National Security(Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas).Google Scholar
  69. Norris R. S. and Kristensen H. M. (2010) Russian Nuclear Forces, 2010, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists,January/February, 74–81.Google Scholar
  70. Gates R. M. (2010) Nuclear Posture Review Report,US Department of Defense, April, Preface.Google Scholar
  71. Bombeau B. (2010) Nucléaire: un bon accord, en trompe-l'il, Air & Cosmos,April 16th, 34–35.Google Scholar
  72. Butler A. (2006) Fresh Eyes: First Images from New Sbirs Sensor Bring Hope for theGoogle Scholar
  73. Cáceres M. (2006) Cost Overruns Plague Military Space Programs, Aerospace America,January, 18–23.Google Scholar
  74. Brinton T. (2009a) House and Senate at Odds Over SBIRS Follow-On System, Space News,October 5th, 5.Google Scholar
  75. Brinton T. (2009c) Software Fix Adds $750 M to SBIRS Price Tag, Space News,July 27th, A3.Google Scholar
  76. Butler A. (2010a) Missile Warning Alert: Stratcom Chief Ups the Pressure to Find Backup Plan for Sbirs Missile Warning System, Aviation Week & Space Technology,April 19th, 35–36.Google Scholar
  77. Lardier C. (2008e) Un Cosmos d'alerte avancée russe, Air & Cosmos, July 4th, 2132, 35.Google Scholar
  78. Lardier C. (2008d) Satellites de Chine, d'Inde et d'Israel, Air & Cosmos,May 2nd, 2123, 64.Google Scholar
  79. Léon J.-C. (2010) Drones à l'attaque, Air & Cosmos,February 26th, 2207,9.Google Scholar
  80. Canan J. (2010) ISR in Today's War: A Closer Look, Aerospace America,March, 30–36.Google Scholar
  81. Brinton T. (2010e) Pentagon Needs Long-Term Planning to Support UAV Operations, GAO Says, Space News,April 5th.Google Scholar
  82. Valpolini P. (2010) ISR in Afghanistan: SR Easier than I, Armada International, April/May, (2), 46–50.Google Scholar
  83. Butler A. (2007a) Caught on Tape: Insurgents Shift Tactics in Iraq to Try to EvadeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pat Norris
    • 1
  1. 1.ByfleetUK

Personalised recommendations