Patients with bladder pain syndrome (BPS) often present with poorly defined symptoms and significant psychological changes. Current understanding suggests that BPS may involve changes in neural processing which results in chronic pain of visceral origin. These pains are therefore considered as neuropathic. With limited research into the specific management of BPS the treatments used tend to be those used for other neuropathic pains.
The management of BPS involves a multidisciplinary approach with contributions from various specialties including, urology, gynaecology, gastroenterology, psychology, physiotherapy, genitourinary medicine and pain medicine.
Further research is needed to understand the pathophysiology and pain pathways involved which will in turn help in the management of these patients. Medical treatment involves the use of drugs that target receptors in the pain pathway. When conservative management fails, the use of interventional procedures may be considered.
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