The pelvic floor musculature (PFM) has long been considered a contributing factor for lower urinary tract symptoms. Research has demonstrated that the majority of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) patients have overactive pelvic floor muscles (OPFM), a condition in which PFM does not relax. The BPS International Consultation on Incontinence recommends physiotherapy as first line to treat this condition. Research, including one prospective trial, supports manual physical therapy for treatment of OPFM.
The Etiology of OPFM is variable and can occur secondary to other visceral pain and myofascial pain disorders. The clinician needs to obtain a detailed history and physical exam and also needs to refer and collaborate with the physiotherapist. Physiotherapists should evaluate the patient’s biomechanics, connective tissue, and internal PFM and be able to implement treatments for each of these specific deficits.
KeywordsPelvic Floor Pelvic Floor Muscle Trigger Point Rectus Abdominus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction
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