• Amy Rejba Hoffmann
  • Hina M. Sheth
  • Kristene E. Whitmore


The pelvic floor musculature (PFM) has long been considered a contributing factor for lower urinary tract symptoms. Research has demonstrated that the majority of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) patients have overactive pelvic floor muscles (OPFM), a condition in which PFM does not relax. The BPS International Consultation on Incontinence recommends physiotherapy as first line to treat this condition. Research, including one prospective trial, supports manual physical therapy for treatment of OPFM.

The Etiology of OPFM is variable and can occur secondary to other visceral pain and myofascial pain disorders. The clinician needs to obtain a detailed history and physical exam and also needs to refer and collaborate with the physiotherapist. Physiotherapists should evaluate the patient’s biomechanics, connective tissue, and internal PFM and be able to implement treatments for each of these specific deficits.


Pelvic Floor Pelvic Floor Muscle Trigger Point Rectus Abdominus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amy Rejba Hoffmann
    • 1
  • Hina M. Sheth
    • 2
  • Kristene E. Whitmore
    • 3
  1. 1.The Pelvic and Sexual Health InstitutePhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Rebalance Physical TherapyPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Urology, Obstetrics/Gynecology and Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive SurgeryDrexel University College of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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